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Cardiovascular Disease  Noncommunicable disease – means that you cannot “catch” it from someone or the environment  Also known as CVD  A disease that.

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular Disease  Noncommunicable disease – means that you cannot “catch” it from someone or the environment  Also known as CVD  A disease that."— Presentation transcript:


2 Cardiovascular Disease  Noncommunicable disease – means that you cannot “catch” it from someone or the environment  Also known as CVD  A disease that affects the heart or blood vessels  Cardio refers to the heart  Vascular refers to the blood vessels

3 Types of CVD – High Blood Pressure or Hypertension  Can damage the heart, blood vessels and other body organs if it continues over a long period of time  Also a major risk factor for other types of CVD  Known as the “silent killer” because it often doesn’t have any signs or symptoms  Can occur at any age but usually 35+  About 1/3 of American have hypertension  Treatment is to manage weight, be physically active, and eat nutritiously. Also medication

4 Types of CVD - Atherosclerosis  Healthy blood vessels are smooth and elastic  A disease characterized by the accumulation of plaque on artery walls  People that have atherosclerosis have a condition called arteriosclerosis, hardened arteries with reduced elasticity  Smoking, high blood pressure, or high cholesterol levels can lead to fatty substances called plaque build up on artery walls

5 Atherosclerosis

6 Diseases of the Heart  Angina Pectoris – chest pain that results when the heart doesn’t get enough oxygen  This pain lasts from a few seconds to minutes and may be a sign that the heart isn’t getting enough blood  Arrhythmias – irregular heartbeats  Happen when the heart skips a beat or beats very fast or very slow  Quite common and usually don’t cause problems  Some types may be serious and should be checked by a doctor  e=autoplay&list=PLB9CAEA15E86171A5&index=2&pl aynext=2 e=autoplay&list=PLB9CAEA15E86171A5&index=2&pl aynext=2

7 Disease of the Heart – Heart Attack  Occurs when a reduced or blocked blood supply damages the heart muscle.  Many cause intense chest pain, but about 25% produce no symptoms  Milder symptoms in women  Symptoms below – Call 911 IMMEDIATELY!  Pressure, fullness, squeezing or aching chest  Pain spreading to arms, neck, jaw, abdomen or back  Chest discomfort, with shortness of breath, lightheaded feeling, sweating, nausea, or vomiting

8 Heart Attack and Stroke Videos  Heart Attack  &feature=BF&list=PLB9CAEA15E86171A5&index= 6 &feature=BF&list=PLB9CAEA15E86171A5&index= 6  Stroke  &feature=related &feature=related

9 Diseases of the Heart  Congestive Heart Failure – occurs when the heart gradually weakens and can no longer maintain its regular pumping rate and force  Cannot be cured, but it can improve through continuous treatment, such as medication and practicing healthy behaviors  Heart transplant may be needed

10 Diseases of the Heart  Stroke – an acute injury in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted  Stroke that occurs because of a burst blood vessel is called a cerebral hemorrhage  Can cause paralysis  Damage depends on size of stroke and what part of the brain is deprived of oxygen  Warning signs include severe headache, numbness on 1 side of the body, trouble seeing from 1 or both eyes

11 Important information on CVD  CVD can start to develop in early adolescents or even childhood  Autopsy results on adolescents who dies from causes other than CVD have found that one in 6 already had evidence of CVD

12 Risk Factors of CVD  Heredity  Gender – men or women?  Age - 80% of people that die from CVD are 65 or older  How can you prevent CVD from happening to you?

13 Cancer  What is cancer?  Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells  Abnormal cells reproduce rapidly and uncontrollably, they can build up inside otherwise normal tissue.  Tumor – a buildup of abnormal cells  Benign - noncancerous  Malignant - cancerous  Usually a malignant tumor doesn’t stay in 1 place. It spreads to neighboring tissues and enters the blood or lymph to travel to other parts of the body - metastasis

14 Types of Cancer  Lymphomas – cancers of the immune system  Leukemias – cancers of the blood-forming organs  Carcinomas – cancers of the glands and body linings, including the skin and the linings of the digestive tract and lungs  Sarcomas – cancers of connective tissue, such as bones, ligaments, and muscles

15 Risk Factors for Cancer  Daily your body produces countless #’s of healthy, normal cells – but it also produces some abnormal cells  Your immune system usually kills these abnormal cells before they become cancerous  When immune system is weak or the abnormal cells multiply faster than the immune system can destroy them, cancer MAY develop

16 Risk Factors for Cancer  Carcinogens – cancer-causing substance  Tobacco and UV light are 2 of the most common  Tobacco Use - #1 cause of cancer deaths in the US is related to tobacco  At least 43 different carcinogens have been identified in tobacco and tobacco smoke  About 87% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking  About 30% of all other cancers are linked to tobacco use  Oral cancer – lips, mouth, and throat

17 Risk Factors for Cancer  Radiation  The glow of a suntan might look attractive, but a suntan is actually your skin’s reaction to damage from the sun  UV radiation from the sun is the main cause of skin cancer  Sexually Transmitted Diseases  Some viruses have the ability to cause cancer  Certain forms of HPV can cause cervical cancer  Hepatitis B can cause cancer of the liver

18 Risk Factors for Cancer  Dietary Factors – about 30% of ALL cancer dealth are caused by dietary risk factors  Diets high in fat and low in fiber is often linked with colon, breast, and prostate cancers  Fats – make colon cells more vulnerable to carcinogens. Colon cells divide faster if diet is high in fat, increasing risk that abnormal cells will form  Dietary fiber – speeds mvmt of waste through the intestines and out of body. If diet is low in fiber, the waste moves more slowly, giving carcinogens in the waste more time to act on body’s cells

19 Reducing Risk  Protect skin from UV radiation  Avoid tobacco and alcohol  Practice abstinence from sexual activity to reduce the risk of STD’s  Be physically active  Maintain a healthy weight  Eat nutritious foods  Follow eating plan low in sat fat and high in fiber  Recognize warning signs of cancer

20 Detecting and treating Cancer  Dr’s are able to detect cancer earlier than in the past  Many advances in treatment options as well  Early detection is key!!!  Self-examination – checking your own body including breasts, testicles and skin  Medical examination – testing by a Dr for early signs of cancer  About ½ of all new cancers are detected during a routine medical screening

21 Detecting and Treating Cancer  Biopsy – the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination  Usually used to see if cancer is present

22 Treatment Options  Surgery – removes some or all cancerous masses from body  Radiation – uses radioactive substances to kill cancer cells and shrink cancerous masses  Chemotherapy – uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells  Immunotherapy – activates a person’s immune system to recognize specific cancers and destroy them  Hormone therapy – uses medicines to interfere with the production of certain hormones, such as estrogen, that help cancer cells grow  Remission – a period of time when symptoms disappear

23 Diabetes  A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert sugar into energy  The pancreas produces too little or no insulin, a hormone that helps glucose from food enter body cells and provide them w/energy  Some diabetics do produce enough insulin, but cells don’t respond  Symptoms – frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained wt loss, sudden change in vision, tingling in hands/feet, frequent fatigue, sores that are slow to heal, more infections than usual

24 Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes  Type 1 – accounts for 5-10% of all diabetes  Body fails to produce insulin, glucose builds up in blood and cells don’t get energy they need  Autoimmune disease – a condition which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself  People must take daily does of insulin

25 Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes  Accounts for 90-95% of all cases of diabetes  Usually occurs after age 40, but rising in younger people  Body is unable to make enough insulin or to use insulin properly  Prevention:  Choose low-fat, low-calorie foods  Participate in regular physical activity

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