Presentation on theme: "Overview and beginnings The Cold War. Immediate Effects of WWII Defeat of Axis powers Defeat of Axis powers Destruction and immense loss of life Destruction."— Presentation transcript:
Immediate Effects of WWII Defeat of Axis powers Defeat of Axis powers Destruction and immense loss of life Destruction and immense loss of life Recognition of Holocaust Recognition of Holocaust Founding of United Nations Founding of United Nations
Long-Term Effects Cold War Cold War Rise of U.S. and Soviet Union (USSR) as superpowers Rise of U.S. and Soviet Union (USSR) as superpowers Divided Germany Divided Germany Development of nuclear capability Development of nuclear capability Soviet Control of Eastern Europe Soviet Control of Eastern Europe Establishment of the state of Israel Establishment of the state of Israel
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences Yalta Conference - February, 1945 Yalta Conference - February, 1945 –Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin Potsdam Conference - July, 1945 Potsdam Conference - July, 1945 –Truman, Stalin, and Churchill
United Nations June 1945- United Nations Formed June 1945- United Nations Formed Started with 48 countries (today – 193) Started with 48 countries (today – 193) General Assembly = all nations General Assembly = all nations –Security Council = 11 countries (5 permanent w/ veto power including US, USSR, France, Britain, and China)
US vs. Soviet Aims in Europe United States United States –self-determination –Rebuild Europe to ensure stability and to create new markets –Reunite Germany Soviet Union Soviet Union –Encourage communism in other countries –Rebuild its economy using Eastern Europe’s equipment and raw materials –Control Eastern Europe to balance US influence in Western Europe –Keep Germany divided and weak so it will never again threaten the Soviet Union
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.
From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and, in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.
Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies for the US. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies for the US. First test – Greece and Turkey – US sent $400 million to aid them First test – Greece and Turkey – US sent $400 million to aid them The Truman Doctrine is an example of CONTAINMENT. This is the foreign policy of the United States aimed at stopping the spread of Communism to other countries.
Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan offered money from the United States to help countries rebuild, hoping that the would side with the US if we helped them. The Marshall Plan offered money from the United States to help countries rebuild, hoping that the would side with the US if we helped them.
Berlin/Germany Situation Berlin Blockade Berlin Blockade –Part of Berlin held by western powers was surrounded by Soviet-occupied territory –Stalin wants to get all of Berlin – and starts a blockade, blocking all land routes into West Berlin No food or fuel could reach that part of the city
Berlin/Germany Situation Western answer: Berlin Airlift Western answer: Berlin Airlift –fly in food and supplies –For 11 months, planes took off and landed every 3 minutes to supply the people of Berlin with food, fuel and medicine –3 million tons of supplies were delivered –In May of 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade
Berlin Wall Built in 1961 to keep the East Berliners from leaving to go to West Berlin Built in 1961 to keep the East Berliners from leaving to go to West Berlin Included fences, barbed wire, guards, dogs, and checkpoints Included fences, barbed wire, guards, dogs, and checkpoints
BASIC FACTS Total border length around W. Berlin: 96 mi. Concrete segment walls: 11.8 ft. high Wire mesh fencing: 41 mi. Anti-vehicle trenches: 65 mi. Number of watch towers: 302 Persons killed on the wall: 192 Persons injured by shooting: about 200
1: East Berlin6: Watch towers*Area between 3 and 11 4: Signal fence10: Anti-vehicle trencheswas called the death strip 5: Different barriers11: Last wall (this is the “wall”)
NATO and Warsaw Pact NATO NATO –A defensive military alliance between US, Canada, and other western European nations –1 st time US enters into alliance during peacetime Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact –Communist answer to NATO –Included USSR, Poland, E. Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and others