Presentation on theme: "Scholar Start Friday, October 24, 2014"— Presentation transcript:
1 Scholar Start Friday, October 24, 2014 Pick up Scholar Start from tableDo Now:What do you believe the Enlightenment means?Write your answer on this side.Objective:Students will be able to explain the contributions of Enlightenment philosophers to democracy by completing a gallery walk.
3 Teacher InstructionsCopy 1-per student WORKSHEET: Enlightenment PhilosophersCopy 3 each: PLACARDS. Laminate PLACARDS if possiblePost PLACARDS evenly-spaced apart around room.Begin Power Point Presentation and have the students follow directions.NOTE: You may prefer to have students get into groups of 4 and have them rotate the placards.Time = 45 minutes
4 Gallery Walk Instructions STEP 1: You will be put into groups of 3-4 people.STEP 2: Walk around the room and read the placards on the wall that describe the ideas of the important Enlightenment philosophers. (5 minutes at each station!!!)STEP 3: Complete the corresponding worksheet: Gallery Walk – Enlightenment Philosophers.STEP 4: When you have finished, complete the follow up questions on the back by using your gallery walk worksheet.
5 Wrap Up QuestionsWhat are the natural rights as defined by John Locke?What is the social contract?What is meant by “consent of the governed?”
6 Station 1: Voltaire A French Enlightenment writer and philosopher Distrusted democracyVoltaire is remembered and honored in France as a courageous man who fought for civil rightsRight to a fair trial and freedom of religionFought for the right of free speechHe denounced the hypocrisies and injustices of the ancient régime
7 Station 2: Baron de Montesquieu Wrote the Spirit of the LawBelieved that people were not naturally equal; he thought that women were inferior and that slavery was acceptableHe studied many forms of government, which led him to his idea of separation of powersPolitical power should be divided between three branches of government with separate, but equal powers
8 Station 3: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Wrote the Social ContractBelieved that people were born good, independent, and compassionate (people left without a government = happiness)He thought that society’s institutions (ex. Schools, arts, media, and government) brought out the worst in peopleBelieved in a “social contract” which is an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefit where people came together and ruled themselves with direct democracy
9 Station 4: Cesare Beccaria Most noted essay, "On Crimes and Punishments“Beccaria expressed not only the need for the criminal justice system, but also the government’s right to have laws and punishmentsWhen one chooses to live in a society, then one chooses to give up some personal liberties in exchange for the safety and comfort of a society (Social Contract)Laws should be enlightened, rational, logical and should be the greatest good for the greatness number:Right to public trialRight to be judged by peersRight to dismiss certain jurorsRight against unusual punishmentsRight to speedy trialRight to examine witnessesTortured confessions are considered invalidRight to be informed of accused acts
10 Station 5: Thomas Hobbes Believed that people were naturally wicked, and said that they couldn’t be trusted to govern themselvesHe wrote the Leviathan and argued that a monarch should have complete control (absolute monarchy)He said that democracy couldn’t work because selfish people would always put their own interests ahead of the nation’sPeople should voluntarily give power to a king who would guide the country
11 Station 6: John Locke Wrote The Two treaties of Government He believed that all people could reason (think) and so they should be allowed to govern themselvesHe said that governments are formed to protect the rights of the citizens (these were life, liberty, and property)He said that the power to rule must come from the consent (agreement) of the ruledLocke also said that because women think, they should be allowed an equal voiceHe believe three key rights are life, liberty, and property
12 Station 7: Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to call for women’s rightsWrote A Vindication of the Rights of WomenShe said that women had an inferior role in society because of the environment in which they grew up, and not because women were inherently inferiorWomen (and people in general) could have better lives if the education system was improvedShe argued that women should be allowed to participate fully in societySociety oppresses women and the entire structure of society needed to change before there could be equality