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Enlightenment in Europe

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1 Enlightenment in Europe
Mr. Porter Chapter 6 Section 2

2 Enlightenment A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems. AKA- The Age of Reason

3 Thomas Hobbes & John Locke
Hobbes Locke Both English Political Thinkers during the 1600’s. Hobbes felt after the English Civil War that humans were naturally selfish & wicked. To keep law and order people created government or a ruler. Social Contract- an agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.

4 Thomas Hobbes & John Locke
Hobbes Locke Hobbes felt that the best government was absolute monarchy. Locke had a different view in which people could learn from life experiences to improve themselves. All people born free and equal . All people have 3 Natural Rights (Life, Liberty & Property)

5 Thomas Hobbes & John Locke
Hobbes Locke If the government failed, then the people had the right to overthrow the government. Idea of government by popular consent.

6 Paris, France Philosophes- one of a group of social thinkers in France during this time period. Five Concepts from their beliefs 1. Reason 2. Nature 3. Happiness 4. Progress 5. Liberty

7 Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
Published over 70 books and targeted the clergy, aristocracy and government. His ability to write was his deadly weapon. He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech. His defense of Liberty was quoted as “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”

8 Baron de Montesquieu He looked at the British form of government as the best one of the time. Published On the Spirit of Laws (1748) with a focus of separation of powers. Idea of Checks and Balances Where to we see Checks and Balances today?

9 Jean Jacques Rousseau He argued that civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness. A good government was one that was created by the people and guided by society, a true democracy. People give up some of their freedom for a common good. 1762 wrote the Social Contract All people were equal and titles of nobility should be abolished His ideas inspired many leaders of the French Revolution.

10 Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
Italian philosophe who put his attention towards the justice system. Abuse of Justice Torturing of witnesses and suspects Irregular trials He felt people accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial without torture. Punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime. No capital punishment

11 Women of the Enlightenment
Women were seen as a role of wife and mother. Late 1600’s women writers began to express their beliefs on the rights of women. By the 1700’s Mary Wollstonecraft argued against Rousseau that women should be educated to be virtuous and useful. Wollstonecraft pushed for women to enter medicine and politics.

12 Legacy of the Enlightenment
New ideas, beliefs, theories that challenged the church and state as well as the different social classes. New Scientific discoveries Began to question the church Rise of individualism

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