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The Enlightenment The Age of Reason.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment The Age of Reason."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment The Age of Reason

2 Enlightenment Reaches peak in mid-1700s
sparked by Scientific Revolution apply reason and scientific method to areas outside science (politics, religion, economics, etc.)

3 Views on Government

4 Thomas Hobbes Leviathan Believed people are selfish and evil
Social Contract - people give up rights to be ruled by strong leader in exchange for law and order Absolute rulers exist to keep order

5 John Locke People have ability to govern themselves
all people are born with 3 natural rights life liberty property

6 Locke Government’s purpose is to protect those rights
Citizens have right to overthrow government if they don’t do their job (James II) Foundation of modern democracy - gov. comes from people

7 Philosophes French Philosophers

8 Concepts that form core beliefs
1. Reason 2. Nature 3. Happiness 4. Progress 5. Liberty

9 Voltaire Used satire to fight church, government, aristocracy
fought for freedom of speech, religion, tolerance, reason Deism

10 Baron de Montesquieu Separation of powers - legislative (Parliament), judicial (courts), and executive (monarch) Checks and balances “power should be a check to power”

11 Jean Jacques Rousseau Disagreed with other philosophers
Civilization corrupts people’s natural goodness Only good government is guided by people - direct democracy

12 Rousseau Social contract - people create government in order to be a free society Believed there should be no aristocracy (used in French Revolution)

13 Cesare Baccaria Focused on judicial system
Against torture of witnesses and suspects No arbitrary or cruel punishment Speedy trial Punishment fits crime No capital punishment

14 Women in the Enlightenment

15 Mary Wollstonecraft Encouraged education for women
Women should be involved in politics

16 Impact of Enlightenment
1. Belief in progress 2. More secular (worldly) outlook on life 3. Importance of the individual (individualism) Leads to: American and French Revolutions

17 Things to know While items in red are important to know, we’re stepping it up a bit and you need to be responsible for the other info as well. All items on power points are fair game for quizzes. You do need to turn in by quiz day a compiled list of definitions of all the items in red. (Include Denis Diderot, Adam Smith)

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