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THOMAS HOBBES Main idea: Absolute Rule by a King or Queen

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1 THOMAS HOBBES Main idea: Absolute Rule by a King or Queen
Philosophy included the following: People are , by nature cruel, selfish, greedy, and power hungry Governments are created to protect people from their own selfishness The best form of government must be one with absolute authority Ruler is able to maintain order Ruler is able to make decision that were good for society as a whole Leviathan: Hobbes’ book describing his political ideas

2 JOHN LOCKE Main Idea: Natural rights are guaranteed to all people regardless of their place in society and The Social Contract Political Philosophy: purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights the right of life, liberty, and property “Two Treatises of Government”: political writings that describe his ideas He argued that governments had political power based on the CONSENT of the governed People have the right and the duty to change the government if it does not protect their rights If necessary, the people should overthrow their government if it does not Example: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 and The American Revolution in 1776

3 BARON de MONTESQUIEU MAIN IDEA: Separation of Powers and a Balance of Powers POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: Government should be organized based on “separation of powers’ Power is balanced among three branches of government Executive: an elected official who shares power to run the country and carry out any laws created by a legislative body Legislative: elected officials who serve the people of their district/region and make laws to benefit the masses Judicial: Insure that all laws created are legal and binding and do not infringe upon the rights of the people Each branch checks the power of the others Without a balance of powers, people’s liberty will be lost

4 VOLTAIRE MAIN IDEA: Religious tolerance and Freedom of Speech
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: Strongly believed in the rights of all people to have free speech Candide: Book written by him that outlined his ideas; widely read Supported the idea of religious freedom for all people throughout France His criticism of government saw him jailed twice; had to flee country Quote: “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”

5 CESARE BECCARIA MAIN IDEA: The Rights of the Accused
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: BOOK: “On Crimes and Punishments” Outlined his political ideas on the treatment of prisoners Decried the use of torture to get a confession Wanted an end to secret trials Judges needed to be neutral and unbiased against the accused The punishment should fit the seriousness of the crime People should receive a fair and speedy trial Torture and capital (death penalty) punishment should be abolished

6 ABIGAIL ADAMS MAIN IDEA: Women should have the same rights as men
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: Wife of President John Adams She had limited formal education: self-taught She opposed slavery Supported the rights of women to be independent of their husbands Supported the right of women to vote in national and regional elections Valued by her husband for her intelligence, wit, and opinions Believed that “true religion” comes from the heart: Deist

MAIN IDEA: THE SOCIAL CONTRACT POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: Humans were naturally good, but corrupted by society and civilized life Advocated the use of feelings as well as reason to solve problems People should live close to nature “The Social Contract”: Outlined his political philosophy Governments are there to serve the people Government and people come up with a “social contract”; it outlines their agreement If government breaks the contract, the people have the right to change it or to overthrow it Example: The American Revolution, 1776 and The French Revolution, 1789

8 MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT MAIN IDEA: Defended the rights of women
POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: One of the most powerful defenders of women’s rights in the 18th century She sought to eliminate social and gender inequalities Supported education for men and women Book: “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Women have reason and should be able to use it Advocated for women to work outside of the home Ran a successful business Her daughter would write the novel: “Frankenstein”

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