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The Enlightenment Chapter 10, Section 2.

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1 The Enlightenment Chapter 10, Section 2

2 What was the Enlightenment?
Enlightenment – an eighteenth century philosophical movement of individuals impressed with the scientific revolution Looked to apply reason to everyday life Reason, or logical thinking, was used to question and better understand things like government, religion, and education

3 Thomas Hobbes Expressed his views in a work called the Leviathan
Believed man to be naturally selfish and wicked Said people needed a government with the power of a Leviathan Strong supporter of the absolute monarchy

4 John Locke Every person is born with a tabula rasa, or blank slate
People are influenced by their surroundings Could you create a better society by changing surroundings to make them better? Said people were born with three natural rights: Life, Liberty, and Property Criticized absolute monarchy and favored self government

5 The Philosophes Philosophe – French word for philosopher
Inspiration was provided by the English and their Glorious Revolution 5 core beliefs held them together: Reason – Discovering the truth through logical thinking Nature – What was natural was good and acceptable Happiness – Urged people to find well being on earth rather than the hereafter Progress – Stressed that society and humankind could improve Liberty – Called for the liberties the English had won in their Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights

6 Montesquieu Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)
Most significant in the area of political thought Wrote On The Spirit of Laws, which discussed the idea of a checks and balances system Believed there should be a separation of powers Argued England embodied this with the executive (monarch), legislative (parliament), and judicial (courts) branches

7 Voltaire Francoi-Marie Arouet (1694-1778)
Fought for freedom of thought and expression Wrote Treatises on Toleration, criticizing the Church and pushing for equality of religions Was a proponent of deism, or the belief that God had set the universe in motion and was letting it run without interference

8 Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
Most famous for social contract theory Society agrees to be governed in exchange for protection Said people had become enslaved by the government through this social contract Man is born free, but society has put him in chains Good government is freely formed by the people

9 Diderot Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
Wrote a 28-volume Encyclopedia that he hoped would “change the general way of thinking” It attacked religious superstition and called for social improvements

10 Crime and Punishment Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
Wrote On Crimes and Punishments, criticizing the justice system Believed punishments should preserve the social order, not avenge crimes He did not agree with capital punishment and promoted the right to a speedy trial

11 Women’s Rights Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
Published an essay called A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Argued that women needed education as much as men Urged women to enter male-dominated fields like medicine and politics

12 Economics Adam Smith (1723-1790)
Wrote the Wealth of Nations, discussing the Laissez-Faire economic policy “Let the people do as they please” Government has only three roles The army The police Public works

13 The Social World Salons – elegant drawing rooms in the homes of the upper class Writers and thinkers came together to discuss and exchange ideas

14 Religion The Philosophes may have attacked the church, but most people were religious 90-95% of Catholics attended Easter services Protestant faith were still prevalent

15 Exit Slip Who were the philosophes?
How were the philosophes influential to the Enlightenment? Select and describe ONE of the following: Cesare Beccaria Mary Wollstonecraft Adam Smith

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