Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Philosophers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Enlightenment Philosophers Objective: Describe the main ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers.
2 European Philosophers Essential Question: How did European philosophers use reason to criticize social and political institutions?Enlightenment ideas led to…Individual Right to Life, Liberty, & PropertySocial Contract = agreement between government and peopleFreedom of Speech = 1st AmendmentSeparation of Powers = Judiciary, Legislature, Executive
3 John Locke English Philosopher Power of government came from the peopleNatural Rights: Rights to life, liberty, and property that people are born withThe role of government is to protect it’s citizen’s natural rightAuthor of “Two Treaties on Government”
5 Voltaire French philosopher Religious tolerance Freedom of speech “I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”Author of “Candide”
6 MontesquieuSeparation of powers: Government should be divided into three separate branchesChecks and balances: Each branch would keep the other in checkJudiciary (Courts), Legislature (Laws), Executive (President)Author of “The Spirit of Laws”
7 Rousseau Government should be decided by the people Democracy was the best form of governmentOpposed absolute monarchsBelieved all people are created equalWrote “The Social Contract”
8 Mary Wollstonecraft English writer Women would help create enlightened families and should have equal rights as menChampioned for women to be educatedWrote “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”
9 Thomas Hobbes English philosopher People are evil by nature and need governmentAbsolute sovereigntyWrote “Leviathan”
10 American Founders Essential Question: How did American founders use Enlightenment ideas? Thomas JeffersonUsed John Locke’s ideas in the Declaration of Independence
11 Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government.
12 The Magna CartaKing John of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215This document was the beginning of democratic governmentGave basic political rights to nobles and showed no one, not even the king, was above the lawOriginal purpose: To limit the power of the kingGave English citizens rights to…Jury TrialProtection of the LawNo Taxation without Representation(Benjamin Franklin later used this principle to argue for the 13 colonies)