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Enlightenment Philosophers

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Philosophers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment Philosophers
Objective: Describe the main ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers.

2 European Philosophers Essential Question: How did European philosophers use reason to criticize social and political institutions? Enlightenment ideas led to… Individual Right to Life, Liberty, & Property Social Contract = agreement between government and people Freedom of Speech = 1st Amendment Separation of Powers = Judiciary, Legislature, Executive

3 John Locke English Philosopher
Power of government came from the people Natural Rights: Rights to life, liberty, and property that people are born with The role of government is to protect it’s citizen’s natural right Author of “Two Treaties on Government”


5 Voltaire French philosopher Religious tolerance Freedom of speech
“I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.” Author of “Candide”

6 Montesquieu Separation of powers: Government should be divided into three separate branches Checks and balances: Each branch would keep the other in check Judiciary (Courts), Legislature (Laws), Executive (President) Author of “The Spirit of Laws”

7 Rousseau Government should be decided by the people
Democracy was the best form of government Opposed absolute monarchs Believed all people are created equal Wrote “The Social Contract”

8 Mary Wollstonecraft English writer
Women would help create enlightened families and should have equal rights as men Championed for women to be educated Wrote “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman”

9 Thomas Hobbes English philosopher
People are evil by nature and need government Absolute sovereignty Wrote “Leviathan”

10 American Founders Essential Question: How did American founders use Enlightenment ideas?
Thomas Jefferson Used John Locke’s ideas in the Declaration of Independence

11 Declaration of Independence
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government.

12 The Magna Carta King John of England was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 This document was the beginning of democratic government Gave basic political rights to nobles and showed no one, not even the king, was above the law Original purpose: To limit the power of the king Gave English citizens rights to… Jury Trial Protection of the Law No Taxation without Representation (Benjamin Franklin later used this principle to argue for the 13 colonies)

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