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The Enlightenment in Europe

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment in Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment in Europe
Chapter 6 Section 2 The Enlightenment in Europe

2 Two Views on Government
Thomas Hobbes English Civil War= All people naturally selfish and wicked= need government to keep order’ Leviathan- Sea Monster need strong ruler to keep citizens under control= absolute monarchy Social Contract-the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government.

3 Two Views on Government
John Locke Saw people as reasonable beings who could look after their own affairs and the welfare of society Criticized absolute monarchy and favored self-government People are born free and equal with natural rights of life liberty and property Government’s job is to protect these rights- If a government fails people have the right to overthrow that government. Power comes from the consent of the people=foundation of modern democracy.

4 The Philosophes Advocate Reason
French word for philosophers. Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life 5 core concepts 1. Reason 2. Nature 3. Happiness 4. Progress 5. Liberty Paris was the center of discussion of politics and ideas.

5 Philosophes advocate reason
Voltaire Francois Marie Arouet Used satire against his opponents Sent to prison twice and exiled to England Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. “ I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it.”

6 Philosophes advocate reason
Montesquieu Believed Britain was the best governed and most balanced country Separation of powers Philosophes advocate reason On the Spirit of Laws “Power should be a check to power.” Checks and balances

7 Philosophes advocate reason
Rousseau Son of a poor Swiss watchmaker got fame by writing essays Disagreed with other Philosophes on a lot of matters Thought civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness Only good government is one formed by the people and guided by the “general will”= direct democracy The Social Contract Agreement among free individuals to create society and government All people are equal and titles should be abolished

8 Philosophes advocate reason
Beccaria Believed laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes Person should have a speedy trial, and torture should never be used. Degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime. Didn’t believe in capital punishment Govt. should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people

9 Women and the Enlightenment
Many male Philosophes still had a traditional view of women Mary Astell- A Serious Proposal to the Ladies Lack of education for women, and unequal status Mary Wollstonecraft A vindication of the Rights of Women Women need an education to be virtuous and useful Urged women to enter male dominated fields like medicine and politics.

10 Which Philosophe /Philosophy do you agree with the most? Why?
Which Philosophy has had the biggest impact on your life?

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