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The Enlightenment.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment

2 The Age of Enlightenment
Enlightenment: Philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logically Rationalism: truth can be determined by logical thinking

3 The Age of Reason Intellectual Revolution Ideas of Enlightenment
Great Change Ideas of Enlightenment Freedom of Speech Popular sovereignty (self rule) Checks and balances Separation of church and state Religious tolerance democracy, freedom

4 Natural Law- objects in nature were expected to act in ways that were predictable
Philosophes- (fee-luh-zawfs) Thinkers in the Enlightenment, after French word for philosopher Looked critically at society, published books, plays, pamphlets, articles, and newspapers

5 The Encyclopedia Handbook describing the ideas of the Enlightenment
Edited by Denis Diderot (dee-droh) and Jean d’Alembert (dah-lem-ber) First edition had 28 volumes Articles ranged from being informative to critical Attacked the church, the government, the slave trade, torture, taxes, war, etc.

6 Key Thinkers Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan in 1651 Beliefs:
People were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish In “state of nature”, people will fight, rob, and oppress each other Social Contract: trade individual liberty for group safety To avoid violence, people choose a leader and give him absolute power Believed that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.

7 John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government
More optimistic view of human nature People are generally reasonable and moral People have natural rights, rights that belong to all humans from birth Right to life, liberty, and property

8 Locke and Government People form government to protect these rights
Best kind of government has limited power and is accepted by all citizens Against taxation without representation Government has an obligation to its people, if it fails them or violates their natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow it.

9 Philosophes Baron De Montesquieu (mohn-tes-kyoo)
Published The Spirit of the Laws Said best gov’t was one that had balance of power with 3 branches of government Believed in checks to power

10 Voltaire French Writer, born Francois Marie Arouet
Wrote Satires about French monarchy, nobility, and the religious controls of the church Jailed twice Critical of intolerance and suppression of personal freedoms “I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”

11 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (roo-soh)
Published The Social Contract Believed people are naturally good, but environment, education, and laws corrupt them Believed people should choose their own government Popular sovereignty Government must be created by and controlled by the people Most philosophes believed in: Enlightened Despotism System of government in which an absolute monarch would rule, but according to the principles of the Enlightenment

12 Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
Spoke for women’s rights Argued that Enlightenment ideas of equality should be extended to women Argued for women’s right to vote and equal educational rights

13 Adam Smith Economist Author of Wealth of Nations (1776)
Objected to the mercantilist systems Argued for the benefits of free trade system Recommended the government should stay out of business, and allow supply and demand to control the market

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