2 The Age of Enlightenment Enlightenment: Philosophers believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature logicallyRationalism: truth can be determined by logical thinking
3 The Age of Reason Intellectual Revolution Ideas of Enlightenment Great ChangeIdeas of EnlightenmentFreedom of SpeechPopular sovereignty (self rule)Checks and balancesSeparation of church and stateReligious tolerancedemocracy, freedom
4 Natural Law- objects in nature were expected to act in ways that were predictable Philosophes- (fee-luh-zawfs) Thinkers in the Enlightenment, after French word for philosopherLooked critically at society, published books, plays, pamphlets, articles, and newspapers
5 The Encyclopedia Handbook describing the ideas of the Enlightenment Edited by Denis Diderot (dee-droh) and Jean d’Alembert (dah-lem-ber)First edition had 28 volumesArticles ranged from being informative to criticalAttacked the church, the government, the slave trade, torture, taxes, war, etc.
6 Key Thinkers Thomas Hobbes Wrote Leviathan in 1651 Beliefs: People were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfishIn “state of nature”, people will fight, rob, and oppress each otherSocial Contract: trade individual liberty for group safetyTo avoid violence, people choose a leader and give him absolute powerBelieved that only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.
7 John Locke Wrote Two Treatises of Government More optimistic view of human naturePeople are generally reasonable and moralPeople have natural rights, rights that belong to all humans from birthRight to life, liberty, and property
8 Locke and Government People form government to protect these rights Best kind of government has limited power and is accepted by all citizensAgainst taxation without representationGovernment has an obligation to its people, if it fails them or violates their natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow it.
9 Philosophes Baron De Montesquieu (mohn-tes-kyoo) Published The Spirit of the LawsSaid best gov’t was one that had balance of power with 3 branches of governmentBelieved in checks to power
10 Voltaire French Writer, born Francois Marie Arouet Wrote Satires about French monarchy, nobility, and the religious controls of the churchJailed twiceCritical of intolerance and suppression of personal freedoms“I may disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”
11 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (roo-soh) Published The Social ContractBelieved people are naturally good, but environment, education, and laws corrupt themBelieved people should choose their own governmentPopular sovereigntyGovernment must be created by and controlled by the peopleMost philosophes believed in:Enlightened DespotismSystem of government in which an absolute monarch would rule, but according to the principles of the Enlightenment
12 Mary Wollstonecraft Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women Spoke for women’s rightsArgued that Enlightenment ideas of equality should be extended to womenArgued for women’s right to vote and equal educational rights
13 Adam Smith Economist Author of Wealth of Nations (1776) Objected to the mercantilist systemsArgued for the benefits of free trade systemRecommended the government should stay out of business, and allow supply and demand to control the market