2 Setting the Stage…In the wake of the Scientific Revolution, and new ways of thinking it prompted, scholars and philosophers began to reevaluate old notions about other aspects of society. They sought new insight into the underlying beliefs regarding government, religion, economics, and education. Their efforts spurred the ENLIGHTENMENT, a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.
3 Key PointsEnlightenment philosophers admire scientists’ use of reason to understand the natural world.Enlightened thinkers wanted to use reason to fix problems.Promote reason to understand government, religion, education, and economics.Want to change the government & improve society
4 Two Views on Government Thomas HobbesLeviathan (1651) –All humans were naturally selfishand wickedWithout governments tokeep order, there would be“war… of every man againstevery man” and life would be“solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,and short.”
5 Social ContractPeople had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler, in exchange, they gained law and orderRuler needed total power to keep citizens under controlBest government was one that had the awesome power of a leviathan (sea monster)Absolute monarchy
6 John LockeThought people were reasonable & had natural ability to govern themselvesLearn from experiencePurpose of government=protect natural rights:What we deserve to havebecause we exist
7 Natural RightsAll people are born free and equal, with three natural rightsLIFELIBERTYPROPERTYPurpose of the government is to PROTECT these rights! If they fail, citizens have a right to overthrow it.Ideas of government – modern democracy?
8 The Philosophes Advocate Reason French word for philosophersBelieved that people could apply reason to all aspects of life
9 Philosophes beliefs…Reason – Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinkingNature – the philosophes believed that what was natural was good and reasonableHappiness – the philosophes rejected the medieval notion that people should find joy in the hereafter and urged people to seek well-being on earth.
10 4. Progress – they stressed that society and humankind could improve 5. Liberty – they called for the liberties that the English people had won in their Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights
11 Voltaire Tolerance, reason, “ I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it”Tolerance, reason,Freedom of: thought, expression, and religious belief
12 Voltaire One of the most brilliant and influential philosophers Francois Marie ArouetPublished more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy and dramaUsed satire against his opponentsHis “sharp tongue” landed him in prison twiceExiled to England for more than 2 years
13 Baron de Montesquieu Devoted to the study of political liberty Believed Britain wasbest-governed and mostpolitically balancedcountry of this time
14 Separation of Powers King Parliament Judges of English courts executive powers – carried out laws of the stateParliamentLegislative powersMade lawsJudges of English courtsJudicial powersInterpreted laws to each particular case
15 Checks and BalancesSeparation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government“Power,” he wrote, “should be a check to power”
16 Jean Jacques RousseauViewed government as a Social Contract among free individuals to create a society guided by the “general will”
17 Rousseau: Champion of Freedom Social contract was an agreement between a society and its governmentCommitted to individual freedomDisagreed with many Enlightenment thinkersCivilization corrupted people’s goodnessOnly good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society
18 Beccaria – Promotes Criminal Justice Cesare Bonesana BeccariaBelieved that laws existed to preserve judicial order, not to avenge crimesCriticized common abuses of justiceAbolished tort
19 Women and the Enlightenment Mary WollstonecraftArgued women neededan education just like men,it was vital to life forall peopleWomen would spreadideas by meeting insalons, or social gatherings
20 On your own…For each individual that we talked about today, write about how they impacted our lives now. What was their impact and what is the legacy of the Enlightenment? This should be in DETAIL and at least ½ page long!!!!!!Use page 198 and 199 to help