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The Enlightenment in Europe

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1 The Enlightenment in Europe

2 Setting the Stage… In the wake of the Scientific Revolution, and new ways of thinking it prompted, scholars and philosophers began to reevaluate old notions about other aspects of society. They sought new insight into the underlying beliefs regarding government, religion, economics, and education. Their efforts spurred the ENLIGHTENMENT, a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems.

3 Key Points Enlightenment philosophers admire scientists’ use of reason to understand the natural world. Enlightened thinkers wanted to use reason to fix problems. Promote reason to understand government, religion, education, and economics. Want to change the government & improve society

4 Two Views on Government
Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651) – All humans were naturally selfish and wicked Without governments to keep order, there would be “war… of every man against every man” and life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”

5 Social Contract People had to hand over their rights to a strong ruler, in exchange, they gained law and order Ruler needed total power to keep citizens under control Best government was one that had the awesome power of a leviathan (sea monster) Absolute monarchy

6 John Locke Thought people were reasonable & had natural ability to govern themselves Learn from experience Purpose of government= protect natural rights: What we deserve to have because we exist

7 Natural Rights All people are born free and equal, with three natural rights LIFE LIBERTY PROPERTY Purpose of the government is to PROTECT these rights! If they fail, citizens have a right to overthrow it. Ideas of government – modern democracy?

8 The Philosophes Advocate Reason
French word for philosophers Believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life

9 Philosophes beliefs… Reason – Enlightened thinkers believed truth could be discovered through reason or logical thinking Nature – the philosophes believed that what was natural was good and reasonable Happiness – the philosophes rejected the medieval notion that people should find joy in the hereafter and urged people to seek well-being on earth.

10 4. Progress – they stressed that society and humankind could improve
5. Liberty – they called for the liberties that the English people had won in their Glorious Revolution and Bill of Rights

11 Voltaire Tolerance, reason,
“ I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it” Tolerance, reason, Freedom of: thought, expression, and religious belief

12 Voltaire One of the most brilliant and influential philosophers
Francois Marie Arouet Published more than 70 books of political essays, philosophy and drama Used satire against his opponents His “sharp tongue” landed him in prison twice Exiled to England for more than 2 years

13 Baron de Montesquieu Devoted to the study of political liberty
Believed Britain was best-governed and most politically balanced country of this time

14 Separation of Powers King Parliament Judges of English courts
executive powers – carried out laws of the state Parliament Legislative powers Made laws Judges of English courts Judicial powers Interpreted laws to each particular case

15 Checks and Balances Separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government “Power,” he wrote, “should be a check to power”

16 Jean Jacques Rousseau Viewed government as a Social Contract among free individuals to create a society guided by the “general will”

17 Rousseau: Champion of Freedom
Social contract was an agreement between a society and its government Committed to individual freedom Disagreed with many Enlightenment thinkers Civilization corrupted people’s goodness Only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society

18 Beccaria – Promotes Criminal Justice
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria Believed that laws existed to preserve judicial order, not to avenge crimes Criticized common abuses of justice Abolished tort

19 Women and the Enlightenment
Mary Wollstonecraft Argued women needed an education just like men, it was vital to life for all people Women would spread ideas by meeting in salons, or social gatherings

20 On your own… For each individual that we talked about today, write about how they impacted our lives now. What was their impact and what is the legacy of the Enlightenment? This should be in DETAIL and at least ½ page long!!!!!! Use page 198 and 199 to help

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