Presentation on theme: "Session 1: Basics of English phonetics"— Presentation transcript:
1 Session 1: Basics of English phonetics English B level course: Phoneticsspring 2015Larisa O.-Gustafsson
2 Speech sounds and letters of the Present-day English language 43 (39) speech sounds (phonemes)26 letters of the English alphabetAs a result:inconsistency in spelling, a special need for transcription signs and pronunciation dictionaries for language learnerse.g. bough – cough – enough – though – throughThe digraph ou represents 5 different speech sounds (phonemes)
3 Phonetics and phonology study the sound systems of languages … . While phonetics studies ALL possible sounds that the human vocal apparatus can make, phonology studies only those contrasts in sound which make differences in meaning within language.Examples of phonemic contrasts:thin / tin /sin, think /sink = minimal pairs (word pairs that differ only in one phoneme)
4 Types of phonetic studies Articulatory phonetics = the study of how speech sounds are made (articulated)Acoustic phonetics = the study of the physicalproperties of speech as sound wavesAuditory phonetics = the study of the perception of speech sounds
5 Phoneme – Phone – Allophone: the case of /l/ Let a million people have milk/l/ is articulated in different ways in these words, but all these versions belong together in ONE English phoneme. They are allophones (dark and clear, or light /l/) of that phoneme.
6 Phoneme – Phone – Allophone Phoneme = a basic unit of which words are composed. It functions contrastively and is an abstract unit, a sound-type ”in the mind”Phones are all the different versions of a phoneme produced in actual speechAllophones are a set of phones, all of which are versions of a single phoneme
7 Classification of phonemes The articulatory classification Consonants are articulated via obstruction in vocal tract. Tongue and other parts of mouth constrict shape of oral cavity through which air is passing. Vowels are produced by a relatively free flow of air. Tongue influances shape through which air passes, which results in different vowel sounds. Vowels tend to be more unstable and variable, and change more rapidly over time.
8 Classification of consonants: 1 Position of vocal cordscords drawn together: voiced (bill, that, van, den, business)cords lie open: voiceless (pill, math, fan, ten, business)Place of articulationlips: bilabial (bill/pill)teeth: dental (that/math)lips & teeth: labio-dental (van/fan)teethridge: alveolar (den/ten, not, business)
9 Consonant classification: 2 Manner of articulation = describes how the tongue, jaw, and other organs of speech are involved in a sound make contactstops or plosives: oral (pen) and nasal (pen)fricatives or sibilants (van, fan)affricates (nature, grudge)liguids (red /non-rotic/, led)glides or semi-vowels (wait, yellow)rotics (Am right)
10 Three parameters of consonant classification: VPM V (voice) – P (place) – M (manner)/p/ voiceless bilabial plosive/l/ voiced alveolar lateral/m/ voiced bilabial nasal/f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
11 Grimm’s Law or the First Germanic Sound Shift Aspirated voiced stops >Voiced stops > Voiceless stops > Voiceless fricativesbh > b > p > fdh > d > t > Ɵgh > g > k > hLat. ped- Eng. footLat. tres Eng. threeLat. cord- Eng- heartLat. dec- Eng. tenLat. genus Eng. kin
12 Vowel classification front vowels: key, bid, said, bad central vowels: above, bloodback vowels: move, book, fall, swanDiphthongs = a combination of two vowel sounds in which the vocal cords move form one position to another: e.g. tie, toy, town
13 Speech sounds in connected speech: coarticulation effects Speech sounds are modified to simplify the articulation, usu in untressed syllables, rapid tempo, and informal styleAssimilation = adjustment to surrounding soundswon’t come, down by law, Great BritainElision = the use of schwa or reduction of sounds in unstressed syllablesnatural, differ, cameralisten, answer (historical elision)
14 Front Mutation (i-umlaut) Regressive distant assimilation = a change of a back vowel to the associated front vowel or or a front vowel becomes closer to /j/ when the following syllable contains /i/, /iː/, or /j/Proto-Germanic *fot- *fot-izGerman Fuss, FüsseSwedish fot, fötterEnglish foot, feet