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Chapter 6 Features PHONOLOGY (Lane 335).

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Features PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Features PHONOLOGY (Lane 335)

2 Segmental Composition
Speech sounds can be decomposed into a number of articulatory components. Combining these properties in different ways produces different speech sounds. properties= features Features show what sounds have in common & how they are related or not related.

3 Natural class Similar sounds that are grouped together because they share some features Example [p, t, k] is a natural class of (alveolar stops)

4 Phonetic vs. Phonological Features
Phonetic features: correspond to physical articulatory or acoustic events Phonological features: 1- look beyond the individual segments at the sound system of language. 2- features to characterize speech sounds in the languages of the world. 3- some features are relevant only for consonants; others are only for vowels.

5 Phonetic vs. Phonological Features
To characterize place of articulation: e.g. [palatal] & use +, or – Binary feature: a feature that has only two values (+ or -) Phonologists express true generalizations about phonological structure as economically as possible.

6 Phonological Features
Major places of articulation: [+ anterior]: sounds produced no further back in the oral tract than the alveolar ridge [+ coronal]: sounds produced in the area bounded by the teeth & hard palate

7 Major Class Features Distinguish major classes of speech sounds:
Consonants & vowels, sonorants & obstruents 1- [+/- syllabic]: distinguish vowels from other sounds [+ syll]: function as the nucleus of a syllable e.g: [æ ] & [ɪ ] in [r æb ɪt] [- syll]: don’t function as syllabic nuclei; [r] & [b] in [r æb ɪt] Sounds other than vowels might be syllabic (liquids & nasals) in [bʌ tn]

8 Major Class Features 2- [+/- consonantal]: distinguish consonants (obstruents, liquids, & nasals) from vowels & glides. [+ cons]: involve oral stricture of close approximation ([p], [l], [t]) [- cons]: with stricture more open than close approximation ([j], [e])

9 Major Class Features 3- [+/ - sonorant]: distinguish vowels, glides, liquids, & nasals from oral stops, affricates & fricatives. [+ son]: produced with spontaneous voicing [- son] or (obstruents) spontaneous voicing is inhibited. Vowels, nasals & liquids are sonorants Stops, fricatives & affricates are obstruents.

10 Major Class Features

11 Consonantal Features 1- [+/ - voice]: consonants with vibrating vocal cords & those which are not [+ voi]: with airflow through the glottis; vocal cords close to vibrate, such as [l], [m], [n] [- voi]: with vocal cords at rest; relevant to obstruents, such as [s], [p] Although vowels are typically voiced, we find voiceless vowels in languages like Mexican

12 Place Features [+/ - coronal]: distinguish sounds which involve the front of the tongue from others [+ cor]: articulated with the tongue tip or blade raised [j, l, r, n, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ , ʒ , tʃ , dʒ ] [- cor] sounds which don’t involve the front of the tongue [w, m, ŋ , k, g, h, f, v, p, b]

13 Place Features [+/ - anterior]: distinguishes between sounds produced in the front of the mouth (labials, dentals & alveolars) and other sounds [+ ant]: produced at or in front of the alveolar ridge [l, r, n, m, t, d, θ, ð, s, z, f, v, p, b] [- ant]: produced further back in the oral cavity than the alveolar ridge [j, w, ŋ, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h]

14 Place Features Labials: [- cor, + ant] [m, f, v, p, b]
Dentals/ Alveolars: [+ cor, + ant] [ l, r, n, t, d, θ, ð, s, z] palato- Alveoars/ palatals: [+ cor, - ant] [j,ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ ] Velars/Glotals/ pharyngeals/uvulars: [- cor, - ant] [w, ŋ, k, g, h, ?]

15 Manner Features 1- [+/ - continuant]: distinguishes between stops & other sounds [+ cont]: there is airflow through the oral cavity [j, w, l, r, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h, f, v] [- cont]: in which the airflow is stopped in the oral cavity [n, m, ŋ, t, d, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, p, b]

16 Manner Features 2- [+/- nasal]: distinguish nasal & non-nasal sounds
[+ nas]: produced with the velum lowered & air flow through the nasal cavity [n, m, ŋ ] [- nas]: without airflow through nasal cavity [j, w, l, r, d, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, k, g, h, f, v, p, b]

17 Manner Features 3- [+/- strident]: separates turbulent sounds from others [+ strid]: complex constriction resulting in noisy airflow [s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, f, v] [- strid]: without such constriction [j, w, l, r, n, m, ŋ, t, d, θ, ð, k, g, h, p, b]

18 Manner Features 4- [+/- lateral]: separates [l] sounds from others
[+ lat]: central oral obstruction & airflow passing over one or both sides of the tongue [l] [- lat]: all other sounds

19 Manner Features 5- [+/- delayed release]: distinguishes affricates from other [- cont] segments [+ del rel]: produced with stop closure in the oral cavity followed by frication at some point [tʃ, dʒ] [- del rel]: without frication

20 Vocalic Features (vowels)
1- [high]: [+ hi]: body of the tongue raised above the neutral position in [ə] Vowels [iː, ɪ, ʊ, uː ] Consonants [j, k] [- hi]: the body of the tongue is not raised

21 Vocalic Features 2- [low]
[+ lo]: body of the tongue is lowered with respect to the neutral position Consonants: [?], [h] Vowels: [ɒ, ɑː, ʌ, æ] [- lo]: without such lowering

22 Vocalic Features 3- [back]
[+ back]: body of the tongue is retracted from neutral position Consonants: [k, g, ŋ] Vowels: [ʊ, uː, ɔ, oː, ɒ, ɑː] [- back]: tongue is not retracted All English consonants except the velars are [ -back]

23 Vocalic Features 4- [front]
[+ front]: sounds for which the tongue is fronted from the neutral position [ɪ, iː, æ, e, ɜː] [- front]: the tongue is not fronted.

24 Vocalic Features 5- [round] [+ rnd]: produced with rounded lips
Consonants: [w] Vowels: [ʊ, uː, ɒ, ɔ, oː] [- rnd]: produced with neutral or spread lips

25 Vocalic Features 6- [tense]
[+ tns]: involve muscular constriction (longer sounds) [iː, uː, ɑː, eː] [ - tns]: no constriction (shorter sounds)

26 Vocalic Features 7- [Advanced Tongue Root]
for describing West African & other languages vowels (vowel harmony) words have vowels from certain sets & not a mixture of both sets [+ ATR]: the root of the tongue pushed forward [- ATR]: tongue root is not pushed forward.

27 Problems with the features
There are some problems of these features; For example: Some combinations represents physical impossibility [+ hi, + lo] The system overgenerates; represents types not found in human languages. Using the feature [back] doesn’t represent languages with central vowels.

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