Presentation on theme: "Phonetics: The Sounds of Language"— Presentation transcript:
1 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language CONSONANT SOUNDS
2 Three ways of approaching phonetics: Articulatory Phonetics:Physiological mechanism of speech production.Acoustic Phonetics:The physical properties of sound waves.Auditory Phonetics:Perception of the sounds by the brain.
3 Phonetics of languages You can make a lot of noises with your mouth, but only some of these are used in speech.Almost every language uses a different set of these possible sounds.We will mostly focus on English sounds for now.
5 Differences in pronunciation Tomato/TomahtoDo you say pin/pen in the same way?Do you say push or poosh?How do you say ‘car’? How about ‘dawn’?
6 How do you best symbolize the different pronunciation? There are lots of conventions used. (see p. 41)How well does the English alphabet represent sounds?
7 5 problems with English spelling The same sound can be represented by different letters: sea, see, scene, receive, thief, ameoba, machineOne letter can represent several different sounds: fish, light; chart, characterTwo sounds may be represented by a single letter: I; use; judgeTwo letters may be used to indicate a single sound: ship, three, leisure, enoughSome letters represent no sound at all: base, knight, psychology
8 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The IPA is consistent, unambiguous, and there is always a one-to-one sound to symbol correspondence.IPA has been developing since 1888These symbols can be used to transcribe the sounds of any language.The system represents each sound of human speech with a single symbol.The symbol is enclosed in brackets [ ].
9 IPA, continued IPA website http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/ipa/ipachart.html To use a symbol to describe what someone says, we put the symbols in square brackets “[ ]”.You will need to be able to:identify the number of sounds in a wordtranscribe English words using IPAtranslate from IPA into English spellingSee page 43 for examples of symbols
10 Articulation of soundArticulation is the motion or positioning of some part of the vocal tract with respect to some other vocal tract surface in the production of a speech soundEnglish uses a pulmonic (=lung) egressive (=blowing out) air stream mechanism.Vowels are usually the nucleus of the syllable and consonants are usually the onset (start) or coda (end) of the syllable.
12 To describe articulation for consonants: Is the sound voiced or voiceless? (action of the vocal folds)Where is the airstream constricted? (place of articulation)How is the airstream constricted? (manner of articulation)Descriptions are in the order of Voicing+Place+Manner
20 Manner of Articulation Plosive (Stop): Complete and momentary closure of airflow through the vocal tract.[p], [t], [k], [b], [d], [g]Nasal: The airflow passes through the nasal passages.[n], [m], Fricative: Continuous airflow through the mouth.[f], , [s], , [h], [v], , [z], 
21 Manner of Articulation Affricate: The stop articulation is released and the tongue moves rapidly away.[t], [d]Liquid: Air escapes through the mouth along the lowered sides of the tongue., [r]Glide: semi-consonants.[ j ], [w]
22 The consonant chartSee page 53 for the consonant chart
23 Some practice Voiced bilabial stop Voiceless labiodental fricative Voiced bilabial nasalVoiceless velar stopDescribe [n]Describe [w]Describe [g]Describe [m]