2 Articulators above the larynx Contraction of chest musclesLarynx muscles modify the flow on its way to the mouthPassing through vocal tract → mouth/noseDifferent parts: articulators (studied by articulatory phonetics)
10 teeth Upper and lower (at front of mouth) Immediately behind lips to the sides of mouthContact with upper side teeth /l/Dental sounds in some languages
11 lips Pressed together /b,p/ = bilabials In contact with teeth /f,v/ = labio-dentalsRounded in vowels /u:/
12 Other “articulators” Jaws Nose / nasal cavity = participates in producing nasals
13 vowels Sounds in which there is no obstruction to the airflow Some cons. /h/w/ hardly obstruct the airflow, tooDistribution is a better criterion,/h/ + ?/bı/ + ?Vowels and consonants differ in distribution
14 vowels Close / open distinction /i:/ vs. /æ/ Front / back distinction / æ/ vs. /α:/
15 These are x-rays of a person producing different vowels
23 Connecting these points gives us a box called the Vowel Quadrilateral
24 Vowel classification Cardinal vowels (standard reference system) For vowels, a different set of terms is used.- high-mid-low: height of the tongue in the mouth- front-central-back:frontness or backness of the tongue in the mouth- rounded-unrounded (spread, neutral):the state of the lipsin English, as in many languages this is predictable: rounded for high back and mid back vowels, unrounded for other vowels.tense-lax : roughly, the degree of tension in the tongueThe terms refer, loosely speaking, to the location of the main tongue constriction within the mouth.
26 The distinction between long and short vowels is not always very clear The realisation of long and short vowels depends on their context, this is called ClippingThis means that long vowels and diphthongs tend to be shortened before voiceless consonants e.g. /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/ etc.