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The Origins of the Cold War –

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1 The Origins of the Cold War – 1945 - 1949

2 What went down after the war?

3 First, we have to address the Holocaust

4 Nuremburg Trials The highest ranking Nazi officers were arrested and tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Found 23 of Hitler’s most powerful who did not already commit suicide

5 Creation of Israel When it was created, the Soviets and US immediately recognized it as an independent nation. Today, 42% of Jewish people in the world live in Israel.

6 Meanwhile, in Japan

7 The US Steps in We all know and remember that guy becoming the military governor of Japan, right? Who was he? Douglas MacArthur! YES! MacArthur steps in as Military Governor of Japan. We “help” Japan reform their government into a democracy (who would’ve guessed it) and send US troops. Part of the peace agreement after WWII is that they will not rebuild their navy. Ever. Ever ever. Never ever ever.

8 Back in Russia – Oh, I mean the Soviet Union.
Oops! Now it’s the United Soviet Socialist Republic (thank goodness we call it the USSR for short) Don’t worry kids, it’ll change back to Russia soon enough 

9 The Soviet Perspective
The Soviet Union had lost over 10 Million men during the First World War, when Germany invaded their Western border. A bloody civil war followed, then, in 1941, they were attacked by Germany for a second time – with even more devastating results. Twenty million men perished, defending the nation from Nazi Invasion. The only goal of the Soviet Union after World War II was to prevent another German attack – even if it meant they would have to prevent Germany from ever rebuilding. Democracy in Eastern Europe – the rights of the people of Eastern Europe, even – were secondary concerns for Stalin. Surprised? I didn’t think so.

10 The Soviet Occupation To prevent Germany from ever taking over again – ever – they occupy East Germany. Why only the East? Well, let me tell you!

11 Germany Divided The major allied nations agree that there should be no chance ever of Germany ever reforming. So, the four major players in the war – US, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union – all take a quarter of what was Hitler’s great nation. (see map). But there is a small problem! The Soviet Union is NOT a democratic nation like the other three – they are COMMUNIST! And there is no way that a democratic country (like ours) and a communist country (the Soviets) can ever agree on anything. Naturally, the US, GB and France all join forces and call their collective areas “West Germany” and the Soviets have “East Germany”

12 The USSR’s Satellite Nations
So, the Soviets take over these areas and call them “satellites”. Satellites are: Countries under the control of another country – in this case, the Soviet Union – and ruled by so-called “Puppet Governments”: Poland East Germany Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania Yugoslavia

13 Winston Churchill, Fulton, MO, 1946
In response to this clear divide, Churchill states “ An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all of the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe....all these famous cities and populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.”

14 Does that sound familiar?
Iron curtain . . . Does that sound familiar?

15 “The Iron Curtain” Divides Europe, 1945 - 1989
The term “iron curtain” refers to the barrier in culture and understanding which was emerging between Western European governments and Eastern European governments under the Soviet Union’s influence. Meaning, they were not going to play nice. And, trust me, they didn’t! Who is “Joe” in this cartoon?

16 But, Ms. T, what is SOOOOO bad about this Communism thing you keep talking about?

17 Game time!

18 Country USA USSR Foreign Relations NATO Warsaw Pact
Organize your cards into a chart like the one below. The LEFT side will be your topics (I gave you one to start) Under each country put the card that best represents their policy in regards to the topic First team to answer all 18 correctly wins a prize! Country USA USSR Foreign Relations NATO Warsaw Pact

19 Country USA USSR Government Democratic Dictatorial Ownership
Individual State Form of Expression Free Censorship Economy Capitalist Communist Foreign Relations NATO Warsaw Pact

20 Containment - The US foreign policy to stop the spread of communism in the world!

21 Germany Divided continued
Now, back to this divided Germany. We have a SMALL problem. Look at the picture! That blown up image to the right is a zoomed in photo of Germany’s capital city: Berlin. Berlin lies in EAST GERMANY. But, it is not fair for the Soviets (who control East Germany) to take over the entire city, right? Of course not. So, in this divide the Allied powers ALSO divide Berlin Um Wait a minute! How are you going to divide a city into a democratic area and communist area that lies entirely in a communist zone. Now you understand why there were some problems! Containment was SO big that we did not even want to give up half a city!

22 The Berlin Blockade and The Berlin Airlift
Berlin Blockade: Stalin attempted to control the entire city of Berlin by blocking off all routes in and out of West Berlin! This included: roads, rails, canals, and waterways. The US and Great Britain responded with the largest and most massive airlift ever organized. Berlin Airlift: US and Britain’s response to blockade – largest airlift organized – flew in supplies and goods to West Berlin. 11 months, 3 supply planes an hour were flown into Berlin. By the end of the airlift, over 200,000 flights had landed in West Berlin with relief of an average of 13,000 pounds a day!

23 The Berlin Wall What started off as main entrances being closed led to an elaborate structure. The wall blocked off West Berlin (the democratic part) from surrounding Communist areas (in East Berlin) to prevent East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin. Was taken down in 1989 when FINALLY East and West Germany could get along and be peaceful!

24 Okay – let me get this straight. Germany is divided into East and West
Okay – let me get this straight. Germany is divided into East and West. East is communist, West is democratic. BUT – in the East (commnunist part) is the capital, Berlin, that is ALSO split East (communist) and West (democratic)? YEP! But hey, at least history kept it consistent! East Germany/East Berlin =Communist West Germany/West Berlin = Democratic

25 What else did the US do to stop the big bad C monster?

26 The Truman Doctrine, 1947 US will provide economic and military aid to any nations threatened by communism - particularly Greece and Turkey, both of which faced insurgent threats which were led by the USSR and its communist allies. The Truman Doctrine delivered over $400 Million in economic and military aid to these two nations, hoping to preserve capitalism and democracy in the region.

27 Did the plan work?

28 The Marshall Plan, Named for General George Marshall – who became the Secretary of State under Harry S. Truman following WWII. The plan was simple. Help European nations rebuild, so they will not suffer from the economic and political depression again (which had allowed dictators to rise up in Europe following WWI). Between 1948 and 1951, the United States loaned out over $13 Billion to 16 countries – the only requirement: US made these nations preserve a democratic government – containing communism from spreading!

29 Good idea? Bad idea?

30 The Economics of the Marshall Plan – Worth it!
By investing in European nations after the war, we were committing ourselves to creating a new Europe – devoted to democracy, individual rights, and capitalism – which would prevent future wars and preserve peace. We were also preventing the USSR from sending in foreign agitators to overthrow the stable governments of Eastern Europe and replace them with more communist, puppet governments devoted to worldwide communist revolt!

31 So, what do we do now to prevent World Wars from starting . . . Again?

32 The UN: The United Nations
The purpose is to preserve world peace by settling disputes between nations. Replaced the failed League of Nations.

33 193 members - ONLY THREE non-members
Kosovo Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008 but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the United Nations. Taiwan In 1971 the People's Republic of China (mainland China) replaced Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) in the United Nations. Vatican City The independent papal state of 771 people (including the Pope) was created in They have not chosen to become part of the international organization.

34 The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Established by the US in as a security agreement with our Western European allies to prevent Soviet Aggression by establishing a defensive agreement with our closest allies. Members of NATO included: The United States Canada The Netherlands England West Germany France Italy Portugal Turkey Norway Greece Belgium Luxembourg

35 North Atlantic Treaty Organization - 2011

36 But, the Soviets say “ain’t nobody got time for that!”

37 The Warsaw Pact Established as a rebuttal to NATO. The Soviet Union created this alliance with the other governments of Eastern Europe The Soviet Union East Germany Poland Czechoslovakia Hungary Romania Bulgaria Albania

38 You guys remember the big bad fear of communism spreading? Well . . .

39 China And – this is where things get REAL interesting!
Leader Mao Zedong turns China Communist in 1949. Soviet Union has an ally in Asia. And – this is where things get REAL interesting!

40 And it is this fear of communism spreading and taking over the world that fuels our next 30 years of foreign policy and domestic preparations.

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