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Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 3 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 3 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psikologi Anak Pertemuan 3 Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development

2 Motor Development Sensory and Perceptual Development Perceptual-Motor Coupling

3 Dynamic Systems View Seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting Motivation leads to new motor behavior; a convergence of – Nervous system development – Body’s physical properties – Child’s motivation to reach goal – Environmental support for the skill

4 Sample Reflexes Moro reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex Startle response in reaction to sudden, intense noise or movement Reaction when infant’s cheek is stroked or side of mouth touched Automatic sucking object placed in newborn’s mouth Grasping reflex Occurs when something touches infant’s palms; infant response is to grasp tightly

5 Gross Motor Skills Motor skills that involve large-muscle activities – Infancy Development of posture Locomotion and crawling Learning to walk No set sequence of development; help of caregivers important more skilled and mobile in second year – Childhood Improved walking, running, jumping, climbing, learn organized sports’ skills Positive and negative sport outcomes – Adolescence - Skills continue to improve

6 Milestones in Gross Motor Development

7 Fine Motor Skills Involves more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity – Infancy: Reaching and grasping Size and shape of object matters Experience affects perceptions and vision – Early Childhood: Pick up small objects Some difficulty building towers Age 5: hand, arm, fingers move together – Childhood and adolescence Writing and drawing skills emerge, improve Steadier at age 7; more precise movements By 10-12, can do quality crafts, master difficult piece on musical instrument

8 What Are Sensation and Perception? Sensation — occurs when information contacts sensory receptors Perception — interpretation of sensation

9 The Ecological View People directly perceive information in the world around them – Perception brings people in contact with the environment to interact with it and adapt to it – All objects have affordances; opportunities for interaction offered by objects necessary to perform activities

10 Infants’ Visual Perception Visual Acuity Color Perceiving Patterns Depth Perception Visual Expectations 20/600 at birth, near adult levels by 1 year Sees green and red at birth, all colors by 2 months Prefer patterns at birth; face scanning improves by 2 months Developed by 7-8 months Begins by 4 months; expect gravity by 6-8 months

11 Perceptual Constancy Size constancy Recognition that object remains the same even though the retinal image changes Shape constancy Recognition that object remains the same even though its orientation changes

12 Vision in Childhood Improved color detection, visual expectations, controlling eye movements (for reading) Preschoolers may be farsighted Signs of vision problems – Rubbing eyes, blinking, squinting – Irritability at games requiring distance vision – Closing one eye, tilting head to see, thrusting head forward to see

13 Hearing Prenatal Can hear before birth Infancy Improve sensitivity to soft sounds, pitches Ability to localize Childhood Hearing usually fine Danger of otitis media Adolescence Most have excellent hearing Danger from loud music Adulthood Few changes until middle adulthood Hearing impairment increases with age

14 Hearing Fetus hears in last 2 months of pregnancy Newborns – cannot hear soft sounds well – display auditory preferences – sensitive to human speech Infants less sensitive to sound pitch Most children’s hearing is inadequate – otitis media: middle ear infection

15 Intermodal Perception Ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing Exists in newborns

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