Presentation on theme: "Infancy Developmental Stage Lecture 5. Introduction From helpless newborn to active toddler: It takes just 12 short months for your baby to undergo this."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction From helpless newborn to active toddler: It takes just 12 short months for your baby to undergo this incredible transformation. Babies grow and change at an astounding pace, and every month brings new and exciting developments. Infancy period : 28 days to 12 months
Gross motor movement is the ability to move and control the larger body muscles such as arms, legs, and trunk muscles. Fine motor movements include the smaller muscles that allow him to perform tasks with his hands and feet. Soon he will grasp objects and mouth them
Gain 140- 200g / w 1.5 cm in length Head circumstances increases 1.5 cm. Hold hand in fist. Draw arm and leg to body when crying. Reflexes (rooting and startle). May lift head briefly if prone. Alerts to high pitched voices. prefers to look at face and black and white. Birth to one Month
Gains 140 -200g/ week. 1.5 cm in length. Head circumstances increases 1.5 cm/ month Hold rattle when placed in hand. Look at and plays with own fingers. Moro reflex fading in strength. Can turn from side to back, and then return. When prone, holds head Follow objects 180 degrees Turn head to look for voices and sound. 2-4 months
Double birth wt. 1.5 cm in length / month Head circumstances increase 1.5 cm/month Teeth may be erupted Mouth objects. Hold the feet and pulls to mouth. Hold bottle. Turn from the abdomen to the back. Watch the course of a falling object Responds readily to sound.
Gain 85 – 140 g/week 1 cm/ month in length. Transfer objects from one hand to another hand. Sit a lone. Recognise own name and responds by looking and smiling. Enjoys small and complex object at play. 6- 8 Months
Gain 85 – 140 g/week 1 cm/ month in length. Picks up small objects. Use pincer grasp well. Crawl and whole body along floor by arms. Creep by using hands and knees. Understand words such as no May say one words. Recognise sound with out difficulty. 8-10 Months
Gain 85 – 140 g/week 1 cm/ month in length. Head circumstances equals chest circumstances. Triples birth wt. May hold pencil and make mark on paper. Stand alone Walks holding onto furniture. Sits-down from standing. 10-12 Months
Birth to 3 Months Prefers visual stimuli of mobiles, black and white patterns, mirrors. Auditory stimuli are soft voice and tap players. Respond to rocking and cuddling. Moves legs and arms. Likes varying stimuli, different rooms, sound. Coos, cries
3- 6 Months Prefer noise making object that are easily grasp. Enjoys soft toys contrasting color. Laughs Cries less. Babbles multisyllabically (mamamamamama)
Like teething toys Increase disers social interaction with other children. Soft toys that can be manibulated and mouthed. Increases vowel. Link syllebles together. 6- 9 Months
Enjoy large blocks, nesting cups. Laughs at surprise toys. Plays interactive games. Understand “No”. Understand simple commands ( baba, mama). Learn one or two words. 9- 12 Months
16 Vision and Visual Perception Infants are born with a full intact set of visual structures. Newborns’ eyes are sensitive to brightness They have some control over eye movement Newborns focus optimally on objects at a range of 7 to 10 inches They look primarily at the edges and contours of objects Are responsive to human face and are able to imitate facial expressions By the first 4 to 6 months, infants can focus almost as well as adults, acuity sharpens, and they can discriminate between most colors
17 Depth and Distance Perception Because the newborn eyes are not well coordinated and the infant has not yet learned to interpret all of the information transmitted by the eyes. Early depth perception is probably not very sophisticated. Even when coaxed by their mothers, infants 6 months or over will not crawl over the edge of the visual cliff.
18 Auditory Perception Neonates can hear. They are startled by loud sounds Newborns are soothed by low-pitched sounds such as lullabies Infants seem able to localize sounds, and prefer human voices
Temperament is determined through specific behavioural profiles, usually focusing on those that are both easily measurable and testable early in childhood.
Three Types of Children 1. The Easy Child - this child showed regular eating, sleeping, elimination cycles, a positive approach response to new situations, and could accept frustration with little fuss. They adapted to change, such as new food or a new school quickly.
Three Types of Children 2. The Difficult Child : – this child showed irregular eating, sleeping, and elimination cycles. They displayed a negative approach response to new situations, for example frequent and loud crying. – They are slow to adapt to change, and need more time to get used to new food or people. Most of the problems reported with these children canters around socialization patterns, expectations of family, school, and peer groups.
Three Types of Children 3. The Slow-to-Warm-Up Child - this child showed negative responses of mild intensity when exposed to new situations, but slowly came to accept them with repeated exposure.
Cognitive Development Cognitive development refers to the ways children reason (think), develop language, solve problems, and gain knowledge. Identifying colors, completing a maze, knowing the difference between one and many, and knowing how things are similar are all examples of cognitive tasks