Presentation on theme: "To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called__________________."— Presentation transcript:
To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called__________________. When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations, the process is called _____________. Sensation _________________________that perception_______________________________.
________________________ Weakest amount of a stimulus that can be sensed We only sense __________________________ Vision: A candle flame viewed ________________ ________________________________________ Hearing: Ticking watch _____________________ ________________________________________
Sensory Adaptation Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation.
Vision Light is ___________________________ Described in _______________________
Parts of the eye __________: Muscle that expands and contracts to change the size of the opening (pupil) for light. ___________: changing thickness projects an image onto the retina _____________: Contains sensory receptors that process visual information and sends it to the brain (includes photoreceptors)
Optic nerves connect to the thalamus in the middle of the brain, and the thalamus connects to the visual cortex.
Visual Acuity ______________________________ Nearsighted: need to be ___________________ ________________________________________ Farsighted: need to be ____________________ ________________________________________ Color Blindness: Genetic disorder in which people are blind to green or red colors. Partially or totally unable to see colors
Sound sound waves are vibrations Frequency or Wavelength (pitch) Amplitude or Intensity (loudness) _____________: high or low a sound is. Depends on the frequency of sound waves _____________: determined by the height of sound waves. Measured in decibels
Deafness Causes: Inherited, disease, injury, old age Conductive Deafness: ______________________ ________________________________________ Sensorineural Deafness: ____________________ ________________________________________ Cochlear implants are electronic devices that enable the brain to hear sounds
Touch The sense of touch is a mix of four distinct skin senses— _________________, _____________, _________________, and __________________. Pain tells the body that something has gone wrong. Usually pain results from damage to the skin and other tissues. A rare disease exists in which the afflicted person feels no pain.
Taste Traditionally, taste sensations consisted of sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Recently, receptors for a fifth taste have been discovered called umami
sensory interaction When one sense affects another sense, sensory interaction takes place. So, the taste of strawberry interacts with its smell and its texture on the tongue to produce flavor.
S MELL AND M EMORIES The brain region for smell (in red) is closely connected with the brain regions involved with memory (limbic system). That is why strong memories are made through the sense of smell.
The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called ______________. The ____________________________ monitors the head (and body’s) position.
Perceptual Organization When vision competes with our others senses, our vision usually wins – a phenomenon called _________________________. Gestalt psychologists showed that the brain creates a coherent perceptual experience that is more than simply a sum of the available sensory information, and it does this in predictable ways. Gestalt psychology examines a person’s total experience because the way we experience the world is more than just an accumulation of various perceptual experiences.
Perceptual organization Figure-Ground: seeing figures against a background ** ____________________________________ ______________________________________ (see the book p.116 for example sketch)
Perceptual Organization _______________: we see the whole picture, even if there are gaps
Perceptual Organization _________________: we group things by closeness _________________: We group similar (like) objects together _________________: We prefer to see smooth continuous patterns _________________/_____________: things move together, belong together
Movement The perception of movement is_____________ _______________________ ____________________: illusion of movement by the quick progression of still images
Depth Perception Depth perception enables us to judge distances. Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception. Even newborn animals show depth perception.
Binocular Cues Retinal disparity: image on BOTH eyes seen at dif angles (____________________________) ___________________: Tension in our eyes as we focus on an object getting closer to us
Monocular cues clearer an object, the nearer it seems Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away.
Monocular Cues Nearer objects block further objects Shadows and highlights give depth perception
Perceptual Constancies _______________: Perceive an object as being 1 size no matter how far away _______________: Color stays the same even in different light
Visual Illusions ________________: we are reminded of building structure: We perceive in-facing arrows as longer
Visual Illusions ●Ponzo Illusion: Size constancy makes us think the top line is longer + further away ●Linear Perspective: Parallel lines, such as railroad tracks, appear to converge in the distance. The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.