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A Topical Approach to Life-Span development 6e

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Presentation on theme: "A Topical Approach to Life-Span development 6e"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Topical Approach to Life-Span development 6e
Chapter Five: Motor, Sensory, and Perceptual Development John W. Santrock

2 Dynamic Systems View Dynamic systems theory (by Esther Thelen)
Infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting (perceptions and actions are coupled) Motivation creates new behaviors Perceptions “fine tunes” movements with repetitive actions Infants explore and select possible solutions of new task; assembles adaptive patterns

3 Reflexes Reflexes Description Sucking
Automatic sucking object placed in newborn’s mouth Rooting Reaction when infant’s cheek is stroked or side of mouth touched Moro Startle response in reaction to sudden, intense noise or movement Grasping Occurs when something touches infant’s palms; infant response is to grasp tightly

4 Gross Motor Skills Involve large-muscle activities
Foundations for development Posture; linked to sensory information for Regulating balance/equilibrium Vision and hearing Self-control increases with infant age Linked to neural pathway development Improved by repetitive movements

5 Figure 5.3 - Milestones in Gross Motor Development

6 Gross Motor Skills Childhood
Improved movements; more mastery, confidence Boys usually outperform girls Extended periods of paying attention, sitting still More fatigued from extended inactivity Benefit more from exercise breaks (15min/2hrs) Organized sports best for development Positive and negatives consequences

7 Gross Motor Skills Childhood Organized sports best for development
Provide opportunities to learn how to compete Improves self-esteem Opportunities for peer relations/friendships Reduces risk of becoming obese Three or more hours per week beyond school

8 Guidelines for Parents and Coaches of Children in Sports
Do Don’t Make sports fun Yell or scream at child Mistakes are okay Continue condemning Allow questions Point out errors in front of others Show calm manner Expect instant learning Respect child’s participation Expect child to be a pro Be positive role model Make fun of the child Be supportive Compare child to others Make sports all work

9 The only quarterback to win a playoff game over age 40
Gross Motor Skills Adolescence Skills continue to improve Adulthood Peak physical performance before age 30 Often between ages 19 and 26 After age 30; biological functions decline Not uniform; organ decline varies Brett Farve The only quarterback to win a playoff game over age 40

10 Gross Motor Skills Late adulthood
Decreased activity level linked to biological and psychological health Natural aging leads to gradual deterioration Lifestyle habits/patterns have impact Physical activity has more positive effects than educational intervention

11 Fine Motor Skills Infancy
Involves more finely tuned movements, such as finger dexterity Reaching and grasping Size, shape, and texture of object matter Experience affects vision, perceptions, skills

12 Fine Motor Skills Childhood and adolescence
By age 3; ability to stack/balance objects Precision increases with age; show desire to build projects — needs adult guidance to complete Linked to increased myelination of CNS Hands, coordination improve Begin to show manipulative skills of adults by age 12 Musical instruments, fine quality crafts

13 Fine Motor Skills Adult development
Skills may decline in middle and late adulthood Dexterity decreases In healthy adults, functional skills are good Competent handwriting into old age (MAYBE!)

14 Fine Motor Skills Older adult development Slowed movements due to
Neural noise: Interference with incoming stimuli Strategy: Ability to perform as usual Compensation by engaging in other strategies Capable of learning new motor tasks; usually perform slower than young adults

15 Sensory and Perceptual
Sensation Information (stimuli) processed by sensory receptors Eyes (retina, optic nerve), ears (cochlea, auditory nerve), tongue, nose, skin Perception What is perceived (interpreted) from stimuli Synesthesia

16 Sensory and Perceptual
Ecological view Perception functions to bring the organism in contact with the environment and increase adaptation. Perceptual system selects which information to process from environment Guides active/interactive behaviors

17 Sensory and Perceptual
Infant perception testing Visual preference method To determine if infants can distinguish between various stimuli Habituation: Decreased response to stimuli Dishabituation: Recovery of habituated response High-amplitude sucking: Nipple sucking rate indicates preferences/discriminatory abilities

18 Sensory and Perceptual
Infant perception testing Orienting response Tracking by moving head or eyes to follow moving object or sounds Use of startle response — reaction to noise Equipment used Video recorders, computers, recorders of bodily functions (heart rate, etc.)

19 Sensory and Perceptual
Visual perception Variances due to differences in how eyes function over time (colors, distances, light presence) Infancy: World is “blooming, buzzing confusion” Visual acuity increases with age Preference for human faces soon after birth Discriminates female from male at 3 months

20 Infants’ Visual Perception
Visual Acuity 20/600 at birth, near adult levels by 1 year Color Sees some colors by 2 months, has preferences by 4 months Perceiving Patterns Prefer patterns at birth; face scanning improves by 2 months Depth Perception Developed by 7-8 months Visual Expectations Begins by 4 months; all know visual cliff by 6-to-12 months

21 Sensory and Perceptual
Visual perception Perceptual constancy Physical world perceptions remain constant Size constancy Recognition that object remains the same even though the retinal image changes Shape constancy Recognition that object remains the same even though its orientation changes

22 Sensory and Perceptual
Visual perception Depth perception Visual cliff experiments Perceptions affected by experiences Debate over affect of nature versus nurture

23 Sensory and Perceptual
Childhood Improved color detection (ages 3-4), visual expectations, controlling eye movements (for reading) Preschoolers may be farsighted Signs of vision problems Rubbing eyes, blinking, squinting Irritability at games requiring distance vision Closing one eye, tilting head to see, thrusting head forward to see

24 Sensory and Perceptual
Adulthood and aging Loss of Accommodation (ability to focus and maintain an image on the retina) — presbyopia Decreased blood supply to eye — smaller visual field, increased blind spot Slower dark adaptation, decline in motion sensitivity Declining color vision: green-blue-violet Declining depth perception — problems with steps or curbs

25 Blind Spot

26 Figure 5.12 - Glare Vision and Aging

27 Sensory and Perceptual
Diseases of the eyes Cataracts: Thickening eye lens that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, distorted Glaucoma: Damage to optic nerve because of pressure created by buildup of fluid in eye Macular degeneration: Involves deterioration of retina

28 Hearing Fetus, Infant, and child
Fetus hears in last months before birth Newborns/Infants: Loudness: Cannot hear soft sounds well Less sensitive to pitch; sensitive to human speech Localization: Distinguish general direction of sound origination Learn through “Baby Talk”

29 Hearing Fetus, infant, and child Most children’s hearing is adequate
Early screening in infancy for problems Hearing loss corrections: Surgery, hearing aids, cochlear implants Otitis media: Middle ear infection Unattended results in hearing loss, language development, socialization Treatments: Antibiotics, tubes in ears

30 Hearing Adolescence Adulthood Most have excellent hearing
Risks for loss: Loud/Maximum volume music Adulthood Decline begins about age 40; other factors impact Males lose sensitivity to high-pitched sounds sooner than females Gender differences: Due to occupation? Treatments: Hearing aids, cochlear implants Pitch Demo

31 Other Senses Touch and pain Adulthood: Most research on old age Smell:
Newborns: Sensitivity to pain, touch Circumcision of boys; amazing resiliency Use of anesthesia in surgery is controversial Adulthood: Most research on old age Touch sensitivity: Decreases in old age Smell: Decline can start in 20s; declines with age/health Affects satisfaction with life, food

32 Other Senses Taste Fetus: Sensitivity present before birth
Newborns: Facial reactions to various tastes Infants: Reference for “salty” tastes at 4 mos. Older adults: Decline in ability to distinguish sour, sweet, and bitter solutions Severity affected by medications and health Seasoned food preferences lead to junk food

33 Other Senses Intermodal perception
Ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory modalities, such as vision and hearing Exists in newborns; sharpens with experience in first year

34 Perceptual-Motor Coupling
Distinction between perceiving and doing? Controversial for some researchers Explores how people assemble motor behaviors for perceiving and acting Babies coordinate movements with perceptual information to maintain balance, reach for objects, etc Driving a car is coupling; declines in late adulthood

35 The End

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