123 Go To Section: 4 Foreign Policy and National Defense C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense SECTION 1 Foreign Affairs and National Security SECTION 2 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies SECTION 3 American Foreign Policy Overview SECTION 4 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances Chapter 17 2222 3333 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Chapter 17, Section 1 Foreign Affairs and National Security S E C T I O N 1 Foreign Affairs and National Security What is foreign policy? How can we differentiate between isolationism and internationalism? How does the Department of State function? How do the Department of Defense and the military departments function? 2222 3333 4444
123 Go To Section: 4 Isolationism to Internationalism Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 For more than 150 years, the American people were chiefly interested in domestic affairs, or what was happening at home. Foreign affairs, or the nation’s relationships with other countries, were of little or no concern. Isolationism, the purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world, was American policy during this time. Since World War II, however, U.S. policy has featured a broadening of American involvement in global affairs.
123 Go To Section: 4 Foreign Policy Defined Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 A nation’s foreign policy is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries. The President, the nation’s chief diplomat and commander in chief of its armed forces, has traditionally carried the major responsibility for both the making and conduct of foreign policy.
123 Go To Section: 4 The State Department Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 The State Department is headed by the secretary of state, who ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet. An ambassador is a personal representative appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy. The State Department issues passports, certificates issued to citizens who travel or live abroad. Diplomatic immunity is usually applied to ambassadors and means that they are not subject to the laws of state to which they are accredited.
123 Go To Section: 4 The Defense Department Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 This chart shows the chain of command of the American military services.
123 Go To Section: 4 The Military Departments The Department of the Army The army is the largest and the oldest of the armed services. The army consists of standing troops, or the Regular Army, and its reserve units—the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 3333 4444 The Department of the Navy The navy’s major responsibilities are for sea warfare and defense. The U.S. Marine Corps, a combat-ready land force, are under the auspices of navy command. The Department of the Air Force The air force is the youngest branch of the armed services. The air force’s main responsibility is to serve as the nation’s first line of defense.
123 Go To Section: 4 Section 1 Review 1. United States foreign policy might consist of any of the following EXCEPT (a) intrastate energy disputes. (b) protection of overseas interests. (c) international trade policy. (d) sending diplomats to global conferences. 2. Under the principle of civilian control of the military, (a) the military acts as an independent and autonomous body. (b) military generals have unrestricted control of the armed forces. (c) mandatory service is used as a means of recruitment. (d) an officer of the people has ultimate control of the armed forces. Chapter 17, Section 1 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333 4444
123 Go To Section: 4 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies S E C T I O N 2 Other Foreign and Defense Agencies What agencies are involved in foreign and defense policy? How do the CIA, NASA, and the Selective Service System contribute to the nation’s security? How does the INS affect our relations with other nations and their citizens? Chapter 17, Section 2 3333 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Chapter 17, Section 2 3333 4444 1111 The CIA and the INS The CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a key part of the foreign policy establishment. The CIA is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information for the President and the NSC. A full range of espionage, or spying, activities are undertaken by the CIA. The INS The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) deals with persons who come to the United States from abroad to live and work, and who may become naturalized citizens. The INS enforces immigration laws and requirements and administers benefits to immigrants.
123 Go To Section: 4 NASA and the Selective Service NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the independent agency which deals with the nation’s space policy. The Selective Service The Selective Service System handles, when necessary, the conscription—or draft—of citizens for service in the armed forces. Chapter 17, Section 2 3333 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Section 2 Review 1. Information gathering in foreign nations, or espionage, falls under the auspices of (a) the INS. (b) the CIA. (c) NASA. (d) the EPA. 2. The Selective Service System handles matters involved with (a) conscription. (b) customer relations. (c) staffing federal agencies. (d) none of the above Chapter 17, Section 2 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 3333 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Chapter 17, Section 3 American Foreign Policy Overview S E C T I O N 3 American Foreign Policy Overview What were the themes in American foreign policy through World War I? How did the two World Wars affect America’s traditional policy of isolationism? What are the principles of collective security and deterrence? How did the United States resist Soviet aggression during the cold war? How can we describe American foreign policy since the end of the cold war? 2222 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Foreign Policy From Independence Through World War I Chapter 17, Section 3 2222 4444 1111 As stated in George Washington’s Farewell Address, for the next 150 years the United States practiced a policy of isolationism. The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the affairs of North and South America and established the United States as the hegemonic power of the Western Hemisphere. Throughout the nineteenth century, the United States expanded across the North American continent through both land purchases and acquisitions through war. As the United States expanded commercially in the late nineteenth century, so did the reach of its foreign policy, as seen in the Good Neighbor policy in effect in Latin America during the early 1900s, and the Open Door Policy for China during the same time.
123 Go To Section: 4 World War I and World War II Chapter 17, Section 3 2222 4444 1111 World War I The United States entered World War I after continued disruptions of American commerce due to German submarine warfare. After the defeat of Germany and the Central Powers, the nation retreated to a policy of isolationism. World War II The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 signaled the United States entry in World War II, joining the Allies (Russia, Great Britain, and China) fighting against the Axis Powers (Italy, Japan, and Germany). World War II led to a historic shift away from isolationism to an increased role in global affairs by the United States.
123 Go To Section: 4 Two New Principles Deterrence Deterrence is the policy of making America and its allies so militarily strong that their very strength will deter—discourage, or even prevent—any attack. Collective Security Collective security, approached by the United States following World War II, involves a world community in which most nations would agree to act together against any nation that threatened the peace. Chapter 17, Section 3 2222 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Resisting Soviet Aggression The cold war was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense, but did not result in direct military action between the two. Chapter 17, Section 3 2222 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Détente Through the Present Following the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente. Détente is a French term meaning “relaxation of tensions. Nixon would become the first U.S. President to visit mainland China in 1972. He also visited Moscow during his administration. The cold war came to an end with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. January 1991 brought the Persian Gulf War, with American forces spear- heading a multinational force to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Chapter 17, Section 3 2222 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Section 3 Review 1. For much of the United States first 150 years, its foreign policy was one of (a) internationalism. (b) isolationism. (c) imperialism. (d) commercialism. 2. Collective security refers to (a) the goal of most of the nations of the world to act together to maintain the peace. (b) a free market ideal aimed at creating new markets for American goods. (c) a policy of tariffs and duties to protect American industries. (d) the goal of the United States to expand its borders. Chapter 17, Section 3 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 4444 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances S E C T I O N 4 Foreign Aid and Defense Alliances What are the two types of foreign aid? How can we describe United States foreign aid policy? What are the major security alliances to which the United States belongs? What is United States policy in the Middle East? What role does the United Nations play, and what problems does it face? Chapter 17, Section 4 2222 3333 1111
123 Go To Section: 4 Foreign Aid Chapter 17, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 Foreign aid—economic and military aid to other countries—has been a basic feature of American foreign policy for more than 50 years. Most aid has been sent to those nations regarded as the most critical to the realization of this country’s foreign policy objectives. Most foreign aid money must be used to buy American goods and products.
123 Go To Section: 4 Security Alliances Other Alliances The United States is also part of the Rio Pact with Canada and Latin America, the ANZUS pact with Australia and New Zealand, as well as other pacts in the Pacific region. The United States has also taken an active interest in the actions that unfold in the Middle East, although America is not part of any formal alliance in the region. Chapter 17, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to promote the collective defense of Western Europe. Today, NATO’s purpose has changed. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, NATO’s goals have broadened to include peacekeeping roles, such as in the Balkans, and establishing a continued relationship with Russia.
123 Go To Section: 4 The United Nations Chapter 17, Section 4 2222 3333 1111 The United Nations was formed following World War II to promote peace and security across the globe. The General Assembly acts as “the town meeting of the world.” Oversight and maintenance of international peace is delegated to the UN Security Council, of which the United States is a permanent member. Peacekeeping missions, international aid to children and women, and investigations and aid for world health services are all examples of current United Nations functions.
123 Go To Section: 4 Section 4 Review 1. All of the following are examples of foreign aid EXCEPT (a) the United States sending supplies to a region struck by an earthquake. (b) the use of the military in overseas peacekeeping missions. (c) block grants to States for immigration reform. (d) monetary aid to rebuild the economies of Europe. 2. The United Nations has all of the following functions EXCEPT (a) providing aid to children in emergency situations. (b) intervention in the activities of sovereign nations. (c) raising concerns over the global environment. (d) attempting to guarantee basic human rights worldwide. Chapter 17, Section 4 Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!Click Here! 2222 3333 1111