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1 C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense.

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1 1 C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense

2 2 Isolationism to Internationalism For more than 150 years, the American people were chiefly interested in domestic affairs, or what was happening at home. Foreign affairs, or the nation’s relationships with other countries, were of little or no concern. Isolationism, the purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world, was American policy during this time. Since World War II, however, U.S. policy has featured a broadening of American involvement in global affairs.

3 3 Foreign Policy Defined Chapter 17, Section 1 A nation’s foreign policy is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries. The President, the nation’s chief diplomat and commander in chief of its armed forces, has traditionally carried the major responsibility for both the making and conduct of foreign policy.

4 The State Department The State Department is headed by the secretary of state, who ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet. The secretary of state offers advise on foreign affairs to the President. An ambassador is a personal representative appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy.

5 Passports/Visa & Diplomatic Immunity Passports-a certificate issued by a government to its citizens who travel abroad. Visa-is a permit to enter another state and must be obtained from the country one wishes to enter. Diplomatic immunity is usually applied to ambassadors and means that they are not subject to the laws of state to which they are accredited. If the host country finds a diplomat’s conduct unacceptable that official can be removed. (persona non grata) 5

6 SECTION6 The Defense Department Chapter 17, Section 1 2222 33334 This chart shows the chain of command of the American military services.

7 Civil Control of the Military President, as commander in chief, is an elected representative and does not have to have military experience. Example of importance- Secretary of Defense cannot have served on active duty in any of the armed forces for at least 10 years prior to being named. 7

8 SECTION8 The Military Departments The Department of the Army The army is the largest and the oldest of the armed services. The army consists of standing troops, or the Regular Army, and its reserve units—the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. The Department of the Navy The navy’s major responsibilities are for sea warfare and defense. The U.S. Marine Corps, a combat-ready land force, are under the auspices of navy command. The Department of the Air Force The air force is the youngest branch of the armed services. The air force’s main responsibility is to serve as the nation’s first line of defense.

9 9 The CIA and the INS The CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a key part of the foreign policy establishment. The CIA is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information for the President and the NSC. A full range of espionage, or spying, activities are undertaken by the CIA. The INS The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) deals with persons who come to the United States from abroad to live and work, and who may become naturalized citizens. The INS issues work permits, grants asylum to political refugees and prepares applicants for U.S. citizenship.

10 Department of Homeland Security Created after 9/11 Cabinet level position Shows the importance of the fight against terror since 9/11 In charge of:border and transportation security, infrastructure protection, emergency preparedness, & defense against terror…Chemical, biological, nuclear 10

11 NASA and the Selective Service NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the independent agency which deals with the nation’s space policy. The Selective Service The Selective Service System handles, when necessary, the conscription—or draft—of citizens for service in the armed forces. The 1 st national draft was WWI and the last was Vietnam.

12 SECTION12 Foreign Policy: Independence Through World War I As stated in George Washington’s Farewell Address, for the next 150 years the United States practiced a policy of isolationism. The Monroe Doctrine (1823) warned Europe to stay out of the affairs of North and South America and established the United States as the hegemonic power of the Western Hemisphere. Throughout the nineteenth century, the United States expanded across the North American continent through both land purchases and acquisitions through war.

13 Foreign Policy: Independence Through World War I As the United States expanded commercially in the late nineteenth century, so did the reach of its foreign policy, as seen in the Good Neighbor policy in effect in Latin America during the early 1900s, and the Open Door Policy for China during the same time. Good Neighbor policy replaced Roosevelt’s Corollary in Latin America. (1930’s) Latin America did not look at the U.S. as a friend. The new policy was an effort to repair the relationship with Latin America. 13

14 14 World War I and World War II World War I The United States entered World War I after continued disruptions of American commerce due to German submarine warfare. After the defeat of Germany and the Central Powers, the nation retreated to a policy of isolationism. World War II The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 signaled the United States entry in World War II, joining the Allies (Russia, Great Britain, and China) fighting against the Axis Powers (Italy, Japan, and Germany). World War II led to a historic shift away from isolationism to an increased role in global affairs by the United States.

15 Two New Principles Deterrence Deterrence is the policy of making America and its allies so militarily strong that their very strength will deter—discourage, or even prevent— any attack. Collective Security Collective security, approached by the United States following World War II, involves a world community in which most nations would agree to act together against any nation that threatened the peace. Regional alliances were developed in an attempt to meet aggression collectively.

16 16 Resisting Soviet Aggression The cold war was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense, but did not result in direct military action between the two.

17 17 Détente Through the Present Following the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente. Détente is a French term meaning “relaxation of tensions. Nixon would become the first U.S. President to visit mainland China in 1972. He also visited Moscow during his administration. The cold war came to an end with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. January 1991 brought the Persian Gulf War, with American forces spear- heading a multinational force to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. Current foreign policy tends to be focused on the Middle East.

18 18 Foreign Aid Foreign aid—economic and military aid to other countries—has been a basic feature of American foreign policy for more than 50 years. Most aid has been sent to those nations regarded as the most critical to the realization of this country’s foreign policy objectives. Foreign aid tends to go to countries that are democracies. Most foreign aid money must be used to buy American goods and products.

19 19 Security Alliances Other Alliances The United States is also part of the Rio Pact with Canada and Latin America, the ANZUS pact with Australia and New Zealand, as well as other pacts in the Pacific region. The United States has also taken an active interest in the actions that unfold in the Middle East, although America is not part of any formal alliance in the region. hapter 17, Section 4 NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed to promote the collective defense of Western Europe. Today, NATO’s purpose has changed. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, NATO’s goals have broadened to include peacekeeping roles, such as in the Balkans, and establishing a continued relationship with Russia.

20 20 The United Nations Chapter 17, Section 4 The United Nations was formed following World War II to promote peace and save future generations from war. The General Assembly acts as “the town meeting of the world.” Oversight and maintenance of international peace is delegated to the UN Security Council, of which the United States is a permanent member, along with four other nations. (Britain, France, Russia, and China) The five members of the Security Council each have veto power. Peacekeeping missions, international aid to children and women, and investigations and aid for world health services are all examples of current United Nations functions.

21 Content Standards 4.1 Formation and Implementation of U.S. Foreign Policy –4.1.1 Identify and evaluate major foreign policy positions that have characterized the United States’ relations with the world in light of foundational values and principles, provide examples of how they were implemented and their consequences –4.1.2 Describe the process by which United States foreign policy is made, including the powers the Constitution gives to the president; Congress and the judiciary; and the roles federal agencies, domestic interest groups, the public, and the media play in foreign policy. –4.1.3 Evaluate the means used to implement U.S. foreign policy with respect to current or past international issues –4.1.4 Using at least two historical examples, explain reasons for, and consequences of, conflicts that arise when international disputes cannot be resolved peacefully.

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