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C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense

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1 C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense
American Government C H A P T E R 17 Foreign Policy and National Defense

2 Isolationism to Internationalism
For more than 150 years, the American people were chiefly interested in domestic affairs, or what was happening at home. Foreign affairs, or the nation’s relationships with other countries, were of little or no concern. Isolationism, the purposeful refusal to become generally involved in the affairs of the rest of the world, was American policy during this time. Since World War II, however, U.S. policy has featured a broadening of American involvement in global affairs.

3 Foreign Policy & The State Department
A nation’s foreign policy is made up of all the stands and actions that a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries. The State Department is headed by the secretary of state, who ranks first among the members of the President’s Cabinet. An ambassador is a personal representative appointed by the President to represent the nation in matters of diplomacy. Diplomatic immunity is usually applied to ambassadors and means that they are not subject to the laws of state to which they are accredited.

4 United States Budget 2008 Social Security War on Terror Medicaid
Defense Interest on Debt Welfare / Social Insurance Medicare

5 The Defense Department
This chart shows the chain of command of the American military services.

6 Two New Principles Collective Security
Collective security, involves a world community in which most nations would agree to act together against any nation that threatened the peace. Deterrence Deterrence is the policy of making America and its allies so militarily strong that their very strength will deter - discourage, or even prevent - any attack.

7 Resisting Soviet Aggression
The cold war was a period of more than 40 years during which relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were tense, but did not result in direct military action between the two.

8 Détente Through the Present
Following the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente. Détente is a French term meaning “relaxation of tensions. Nixon would become the first U.S. President to visit mainland China in He also visited Moscow. The cold war came to an end with the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. 1991 brought the Persian Gulf War, with American forces leading a coalition to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.

9 Section Review 1. United States foreign policy might consist of any of the following EXCEPT (a) intrastate energy disputes. (b) protection of overseas interests. (c) international trade policy. (d) sending diplomats to global conferences. 2. Under the principle of civilian control of the military, (a) the military acts as an independent and autonomous body. (b) military generals have unrestricted control of the armed forces. (c) mandatory service is used as a means of recruitment. (d) an officer of the people has ultimate control of the armed forces. Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here!

10 The CIA and the CIS The CIA The CIS (INS)
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a key part of the foreign policy establishment. The CIA is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and reporting information for the President and the NSC. A full range of espionage, or spying, activities are undertaken by the CIA. The CIS (INS) The Customs and Immigration Service (formerly INS) deals with persons who come to the United States from abroad to live and work, and who may become naturalized citizens. The CIS enforces immigration laws and requirements and administers benefits to immigrants.

11 NASA and the Selective Service
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the independent agency which deals with the nation’s space policy. The Selective Service The Selective Service System handles, when necessary, the conscription—or draft—of citizens for service in the armed forces.

12 Foreign Aid Foreign aid—economic and military aid to other countries—has been a basic feature of American foreign policy for more than 50 years. Most foreign aid money must be used to buy American goods and products.

13 The United Nations The United Nations was formed following World War II to promote peace and security across the globe. The General Assembly acts as “the town meeting of the world.” Peacekeeping missions, aid to children and women, investigations, world health services are all examples of current UN functions.

14 UN Security Council Oversight and maintenance of international peace is delegated to the UN Security Council, “teeth” of the United Nations. Five nations enjoy permanent member status: United States United Kingdom Russia People’s Republic of China France

15 Security Alliances NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). NATO’s goals have broadened to include peacekeeping roles, such as in the Balkans, and establishing a continued relationship with Russia. Chapter 17, Section 4

16 Security Alliances Other Alliances Rio Pact (Latin America)
The United States is part of several other alliances and has also taken an active interest in the actions that unfold in the Middle East, although America is not part of any formal alliance in the region. Rio Pact (Latin America) ANZUS (US, Australia, New Zealand) Japan Pact Korea Pact Taiwan Pact

17 Section Review 1. All of the following are examples of foreign aid EXCEPT (a) the United States sending supplies to a region struck by an earthquake. (b) the use of the military in overseas peacekeeping missions. (c) block grants to States for immigration reform. (d) monetary aid to rebuild the economies of Europe. 2. The United Nations has all of the following functions EXCEPT (a) providing aid to children in emergency situations. (b) intervention in the activities of sovereign nations. (c) raising concerns over the global environment. (d) attempting to guarantee basic human rights worldwide. Want to connect to the Magruder’s link for this section? Click Here! 1 2 3 Chapter 17, Section 4

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