# Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World

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Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World
Unit 1: The World Chapter 1: How Geographers Look at the World

Geography Skills Handbook
Why is geography important to our daily lives? Globes Scaled model of the Earth. Very little detail. Taking it from 3-D to 2-D Use mathematical formulas to transfer information from globe to maps Works great until you get to poles. Great Circle Routes- follows the great circle which is an imaginary line that goes around the Earth. Used by ship captains and pilots to reduce travel time. Tokyo to Las Angeles

Projections There are specific kinds of projections. All projections have distorted information Projections all focus on one aspect that is accurate Planar Projection- also called azimuthal. Most accurate at the center. Can draw a line from the center to anywhere at it is the shortest distance. Used for mapping the poles. Cylindrical Projection- map on a cylinder. Accurate at center. Highly distorted at the poles Conic Projection- most accurate around the equator. Show limited areas. Good for distance and directions Winkel Tripel- most world maps are this. Fairly accurate. Goode’s Interrupted Equal Area- globe cut apart and laid out. Most accurate representation of Earth. Robinson- minor distortions. Poles are laid flat. Most land accurate. Mercator- very distorted. Accurate at Equator but not at poles.

Longitude Latitude Robinson Projection Mercator Projection World Map
Goode’s Interrupted Equal Area Projection Map Projections: Planar, Conic, and Cylindrical Latitude Robinson Projection Mercator Projection Winkel Tripel Projection World Map

Geography Skills Handbook
Location and Maps- grid system on the map can help you locate things. Determining Location Latitude- parallels. Circle the Earth. Measure distance north and south of Equator. Equator is measured at 0° latitude and the Poles are 90 ° Longitude- Meridians. Circle Earth from pole to pole. Measure distance east and west of Prime Meridian at 0 ° longitude. 180 ° longitude is called the International Date Line and is on the opposite side of the globe. Global Grid- absolute location can be found for everything using the grid system. Find latitude and longitude. Even narrowed down more by dividing each degree into 60 minutes. Hemispheres- north, south, east and west.

Latitude and Longitude

Reading a Map Tools for reading a map- key, scale bar, compass rose
Using a scale- proportional relationship between measurement on a map and the real measurement on Earth’ surface Small scale- large area with very little detail Large scale- small area with a lot of detail. Absolute Location- exact position of a place on earth. Relative Location- position of a place on earth relative to another.

Kinds of Maps Physical Maps- Political Maps Thematic Maps
Location and topography Water features, landforms, relief and elevation Political Maps Boundaries and location of political units Human made features Thematic Maps Focus on one idea and each serves different purpose. Qualitative Maps- colors, lines, and symbols to show information.. Flow Line Maps- movement of people, animals, goods and ideas. Geographic Information Systems Accept information and put it all in database. Use to make maps.

Elements of Geography World in Spatial Terms- Places and Regions
Links that people and places have to each other based on location Site- specific location of a places- small picture situation- relative location- big picture Places and Regions Formal region- defined by common characteristic. Corn Belt Functional Region- central place and surrounding area. Metropolitan areas. Perceptual Region- defined by popular feelings and images. Heartland. Physical and Human Systems Different branches. Physical- climate, land, water, plants, and animals Human- human activities and relationships to cultural and physical environment.

Regions Perceptual Region example Functional Region example
Formal Region example

Elements of Geography Environment and Society Research methods
Study of interrelationship between people and environment. Research methods Direction Observation- satellite images and aerial photographs. Mapping- taking information and making it accessible for average person. Interviewing- talk to sample that represents the whole group Analyzing Statistics- numerical information to determine rainfall patters, etc. Using Technology- GIS and computers/satellites.

Geography and Other Subjects.
Past Environments and Politics What places might have looked like. How they were governed. How natural environment has impacted politics and vice versus. Society and Culture Sociology and anthropology used to understand world cultures Economics Location of resources affect the way people make, transport, and use goods. interdependence Geography as a Career Physical- find work as climate and weather experts or in environmental field Human- find work in health care, transportation, population studies, economic development