# How Geographers See the World

## Presentation on theme: "How Geographers See the World"— Presentation transcript:

How Geographers See the World
Chapter 1 How Geographers See the World

Globes and Maps globe – a scale model of the earth.
Map – a symbolic representation of all or part of the planet. Cartographer – mapmaker Great circle route – the shortest distance between any two places

Projections Planar Projection – most accurate at its center. Often used for maps of the poles. Cylindrical Projection – projecting the globe onto a cylinder. Most accurate near the Equator. Shapes and distances are distorted near the poles. Conic Projection – comes from placing a cone over part of a globe. Best sutied for showing limited east-west areas that are not too far from the equator.

Common Map Projections
Winkel Tripel Projection Goode’s Interrupted Equal-Area Projection Robinson Projection Mercator Projection

Determining Location Location – tool for answering the question where?
Grid system – lines on globes and maps that provide information that can help you locate places. Lines cross each other forming a grid. Hemisphere – one of the halves into which the Earth is divided.

Latitude Latitude – lines which circle the earth parallel to the Equator and measure the distance north or south of the equator in degrees Equator – 0 degrees latitude

Longitude Longitude – lines which circle the earth from Pole to Pole. These lines measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridian. Prime Meridian – 0 degrees longitude.

Global Grid Absolute Location – the latitude and longitude that cross exactly at that place

Northern and Southern Hemispheres
Northern Hemisphere – everything north of the equator Southern Hemisphere – everything south of the equator

Eastern and Western Hemispheres
Eastern Hemisphere – everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees, or half way around the earth Western Hemisphere – everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180 degrees

Reading a Map Title – tells you what kind of information the map is showing Key – lists and explains the symbols, colors, and lines used on the map. Sometimes called the legend. Scale Bar – shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distances on the Earth. Compass Rose – indicates directions

Cardinal directions – north, south, east and west
Intermediate directions – northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest Cities – represented by a dot Capitals – often represented by a star within a circle Boundary Lines – highlight the borders between different countries and states

Using Scale Scale – a consistent proportional relationship between the measurements shown on the map and measurement of the Earth’s surface. Small – Scale maps – can show a large area but little detail Large – Scale maps – can show a small areas with a great amount of detail

Absolute and Relative Location
Relative location – location of one place in relation to another.

Physical Maps Physical Maps – show the location and shape of the earth’s physical features Topography – shape of the earth

Political Maps Political map – shows the boundaries and location of political units such as countries, states, countries, cities and towns. Many features on a political map are human made, or determined by humans rather than by nature.

Thematic Maps Thematic Maps – maps that emphasize a single idea or a particular kind of information Examples: climate, vegetation , population, economic activities. Qualitative Maps: use colors, symbols, lines of dots to show information related to a specific idea. Often used to depict historical info. Flow – Line Maps – Maps that illustrate of something, such as people, animals, goods, hurricanes, etc.

Geographic Information Systems
Most modern cartographers use software programs called GIS to quickly and easily produce maps and change them.

2. The Geographer’s Craft

The Elements of Geography
Geographers study the location of people and places on Earth’s surface and the patterns in which they are arranged.

The World in Spatial Terms
Spatial relationships – links people and places have to one another because of their location Site – specific location of a place, including it’s physical setting. Situation – refers to the geographic position of a place in relation to other places and its connections to other regions.

Places and Regions Place – particular space with physical and human meaning. Region – areas with similar characteristics Formal Region – defined by a common characteristic, such as a product produced there. Ex. Corn Belt Functional Region – a central place and the surrounding area linked to it. Perceptual Region – defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data. Ex. Heartland

Physical Systems and Human Systems
Physical Geography – focuses on the study of earth’s physical features. Human Geography – study of human activities and their relationship to the cultural and physical environment Ecosystem – a community of plants and animals that depend upon one another and their surroundings for survival Movement – a recurring theme in geography tracking the movement of people, goods and ideas.

Environment and Society
Human Environment Interaction – study of the relationship between people and their physical environment. Geographers examine the ways people use their environment, how and why they change it, and what consequences result form these changes.

Research Methods Direct Observation – observing the earth to study the patterns of human activities that take place on its surface. Mapping – show location, features, patterns and relationships of people, place and things. Interviewing – choosing a paritcular group of people for study, asking questions. Analyzing Statistics – some information geographers use is numerical and must be analyzed to find patterns and trends. Using Technology – geographers often use scientific instruments in their work, including GI S.

Geography and Other Subjects
Geography is related to other subject areas such as history and economics.

Past Environments and Politics
Geographers use historical perspectives to understand what places could have looked like in the past. Geographers study political patterns to see how people in different places are governed.

Society and Culture Geographers seek to understand cultures around the world. They study the relationships between physical environment and social structures.

Economies Geographers study economics to understand how the locations of resources affect the ways people make, transport and use goods. Geographers are also interested in the interdependent of people's economic activities around the world.