2 Main Objectives Name the 2 Main Branches of Geography Explain how we use GeographyDescribe some ways we can organize our world & the study of Geography
3 What is Geography?The study of everything on Earth, from rocks and rainfall to people and places.Geographers study a world that is shaped by LANDSCAPES.Describe the landscape of Memphis, TN.
4 Perspectives PERSPECTIVE is the way a person looks at something. Can PERSPECTIVES differ?The LANDSCAPE you described of Memphis is your PERSPECTIVE of Memphis.
5 Physical or Human? Was your PERSPECTIVE human, or physical. Human geograPHy looks at the distribution and characteristics of the worlds people.Where people live, work, go to schoolPhysical geograPHy looks at the natural environments.Weather (Climate), natural animals (fauna), natural plants (flora), mountains, rivers, oceans.
8 Who uses Geography? Everyone! Everyday! Lawyer? Chef? Pilot? Mailman? Student?Challenge - Who does not use geography?
9 Subfields of Geography Cartography – The Study of Maps.Meteorology – The Study of Weather.Biology – The Study of living things.Archeology – The study of Historical objects.Geology – The study of rocks.
10 RegionsA REGION is an area with one or more common features that make it different from surrounding areas.REGIONS can be any size.Bedroom, House, Neighborhood, City, County, State, Country, Continent.
11 Types of RegionsFORMAL REGION – A group of places that have similar attributes.Farm Crops, Shelby ForestFUNCTIONAL REGION – A group of places connected by movement. (Everything that receives water from the Mississippi River)PERCEPTUAL REGION - reflect human feelings and attitudes ( Dixie, Mid-South)Perception is a viewpoint that is influenced by one’s own culture and experiences.
12 5 Themes of geography1. Location Deals with an exact or a relative spot.2. Place Includes physical & human features of a location.3. Movement involves how people and things change location and the effects of these changes.
13 5 Themes of geography4. Regions organizes the Earth into geographic areas with 1 or more shared characteristics.5. Human Environment Interaction covers the ways people & environments interrelate with affect to each other.
14 List and Define the 6 Elements 1. World in Spatial Terms focus on geography’s spatial perspective. The use of maps for this is crucial.3. Physical System shape Earth’s features by studying earthquakes, mountain, weather pattern2. Places & Regions deals with the physical and human features of how those places & how we define & perceive various regions4. Human System our activities, movement & settlements shape earth’s surface
15 List and Define the 6 Elements 5. Environment & Society relationship between people and the environment & how they affect each other.6. Use of Geography helps us understand relationships between people, places or environment over time. Can help interpret past or present, and plan for the future.
16 Main Objectives Name the 2 Main Branches of Geography Explain how we use GeographyDescribe some ways we can organize our world & the study of Geography
17 Main Objectives Give Examples: Formal Region Functional Region Perceptual RegionPhysical Geographical FeatureHuman Geographical Feature
18 Using the Geographer’s Tools Chapter 1.2Using the Geographer’s Tools
19 Section 2 ObjectivesExplain how geographers and mapmakers organize the world.Identify the different types of maps geographers use, and why they use them.Identify and explain the Title, Direction, Scale, and Legend on a map.
20 Global GridEvery location on Earth can be found by using latitude and longitude on a map or globe.These lines form a grid like patter on the map or globe that allow you to pinpoint specific locations.This exact location is also referred to as absolute location.
21 Latitude Lines of Latitude run east and west. Everything is measured north or south of the Equator.Also called parallels.Which line of latitude is Memphis on?
22 LatitudeThe Equator is an imaginary line that circles the globe halfway between the north and south pole.All lines of latitude (parallels), are parallel to the Equator.
23 Longitude Lines of Longitude run North and South. Also called meridians.Meridians measure east and west of the Prime Meridian.The Prime Meridian runs from the North Pole to the South Pole.What is the Longitude of Memphis?
24 Organization The globe is divided into 4 hemispheres. The globe is divided into 7 continents.Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, South America, Europe, and Antarctica.For Memphis, TN identify the following:Hemisphere, Continent, and Absolute Location.Rio de Janeiro, Brazil? London, England? Beijing, China? Sydney, Australia?
25 Distance ScalesA maps distance scale helps us to determine real distances between points on a map.Maps of small areas can show more detail.Large areas less detailed.Germantown, Memphis, Tennessee?
27 Other Map ElementsTitle – Gives the reader knowledge of what he/she is looking at. Every Map must have a title.Directional Indicator - Shows which directions of a map are north, south, east, and west.A Compass Rose has arrows that point to all four principal directions.A map’s legend, or key, identifies the symbols on a map and what they represent.Inset maps are used to focus in on a small part of a larger map.
28 Name 3 types of map projections. Mercator This projection is in cylindrical form.Often called the cylindrical projectionIs good for navigationDistortion increases the farther you move from the Equator
29 Name 3 types of map projections. Conic Is shown as if someone placed a cone around the areaIs accurate in the area the cone would touch but distortion increases in the middle of the map.Good for looking at the North and South PolesCan you see Santa’s workshop with this map?
30 Name 3 types of map projections. Flat Plain As if some one mapped the area where the round world touched a flat piece of paper.Great for true directionGreatly distorts the shape of landforms and surface
31 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Climate Map: Shows the climate or climates of the areas on the map.
32 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Precipitation Map: Shows the annual average rainfall of the area being mapped.
33 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Population Map: Shows the average number of people living in the area being mapped
34 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Physical Map: Shows the elevation and physical features
35 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Political Map: Shows boundary lines of the area being mapped
36 Give examples of 6 different types of maps Topographic Map: Shows the topography of the landscape. Topography describes the elevation and shape of a landmass.
37 Section 2 ObjectivesExplain how geographers and mapmakers organize the world.Identify the different types of maps geographers use, and why they use them.Identify and explain the Title, Direction, Scale, and Legend on a map.