Presentation on theme: "1-1 Chapter IV – Motivation Objectives: I.Definition of Motivation II.Types of Motivation III.The basic motivation frameworks IV.Theory of Motivation rrrtsss."— Presentation transcript:
1-1 Chapter IV – Motivation Objectives: I.Definition of Motivation II.Types of Motivation III.The basic motivation frameworks IV.Theory of Motivation rrrtsss
I. Definition of Motivation Motivation can be defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. On any given day, an employee may choose to work as hard as possible at a job, to work just hard enough to avoid a reprimand, or to do as little as possible. So we need to motivate them to work as hard as possible.
Types of motivation Positive motivation: Subordinates follow the leader because of some possible gain, reward or satisfaction. They expect a feeling of achievement, sense of responsibility, a appreciation, promotion, and so on. Motivation can be used to get better results in terms of higher productivity. Negative motivation: Subordinates follow the leader not because of any expected advantage. But because of fear of punishment or the application of certain sanctions, such as losing money or status, recognition or even their job. Authority and punishment are used to make people do what management wants them to do.
The basic motivation frameworks Need deficiencies Need deficiencies reassessed Search for ways to satisfy needs EMPLOYE E Rewards or punishments Goal directed behavior Performance
The basic motivation frameworks Need deficiencies: an employee feel his salary and position are deficient, because do not reflect to the importance of his work in the organization. Search for ways to satisfy needs: an employee might consider that ask for a raise and promotion or work harder in hopes of earning a raise and promotion or look for a new job with a higher salary and more prestigious title. Goal directed behavior: an employee might actually pursue more than one option at the same time, but most effort will be directed at only one option. Performance: the employee actually carried out the behavior chosen to satisfy the needs. For example, work harder, look for a new job, or ask for a raise. Evaluation of needs satisfaction: an employee evaluates his/her success. If his/her hard work resulted in a pay raise, he/she feel good about things and will continue to work hard, if no, he try another option. Need deficiencies reassessed: the person assesses the need extend to which the need has been satisfied.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Malslow’s Hierarchy of Need Abraham Maslow, a psychologist, believed that people have a complex set of five categories of needs, which he arranged in order of hierarchy: Physiological (at the base), Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self-Actualization (at the top). Physiological needs: the most desires for food, clothing, shelter, clean water etc. Safety needs: the desires for security, stability, and absence of pain, threat, and illness. Social needs: the desires for friendship, love, and belonging. Esteem needs: the desires for self-respect, a sense of personal achievement, and recognition from others. Self-actualization needs: the desires for personal growth, self-fulfillment, and the realization of the individual’s full potential.
Malslow’s Hierarchy of Need SELF ACTUALIZATION NEEDS ESTEEM NEEDS SOCIAL NEEDS PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS SAFETY NEEDS
The Two –Factor Theory Psychologist Frederick Herzberg (1975) and his associates developed a needs theory called the two-factor, or hygiene- motivator theory. Hygiene Factors: Types of factor that is largely associated which the work environment such as: Salary, job security, working conditions, status, company policies, quality of technical supervision and quality of interpersonal relations among peers, supervisors, and subordinates. Motivation Factors: Types of factor that relates mainly to the content of the job such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and possibility of growth.
Comparison of theory of Maslow and Herzberg Self-actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Recognition Salary Job security Interpersonal Relationship Possibility for Growth Motivators help to promote Satisfaction Hygiene factors help to prevent dissatisfaction High Job DissatisfactionHigh Job SatisfactionNeutral point at which there is no job dissatisfaction but there is no job satisfaction