MOTIVATION Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. I) Content Theories of Motivation.
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MOTIVATION Processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. I) Content Theories of Motivation II) Contemporary Theories of Motivation
I) Hierarchy of Needs Theory Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological
Hierarchy of Needs As each of these needs becomes satisfied, next need becomes dominant Satisfied need no longer motivates Higher (satisfied internally) versus lower (satisfied externally) order needs
II) Theory X and Theory Y After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees Under Theory X: People inherently dislike work, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. They must be coerced, controlled or threatened with punishment to achieve goals They will avoid responsibilities & seek formal direction whenever possible Place security above all other factors
Under Theory Y People can view work as natural as rest or play They will exercise self-direction & self- control if they are committed to objectives They can learn to accept responsibility Ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population
Theory X versus Theory Y Theory X: Lower needs dominate individuals Theory Y: Higher order needs Theory Y assumptions are more valid than Theory X. Participative decision-making, responsible & challenging jobs, good group relations
III) Two-Factor Theory One’s attitude toward work can determine success or failure => “What do people want from their jobs?”; Situations in which employees felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs. Opposite of “satisfaction” = “no satisfaction” Opposite of “dissatisfaction” = “no dissatisfaction”
Hygiene Factors Company policy & administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Salary Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security
Motivators Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth
Contemporary Theories: I)McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for achievement: (nAch) Seek situations attaining personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems Receive feedback on their performance Not gamblers, dislike succeeding by chance Interested in how well they do personally Prefer tasks of intermediate difficulty Perform best when they estimate that they have a chance of success =>Run own business, manage self-contained unit
McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for power: (nPow) Desire to have impact, to be influential & to control others Prefer to be placed into competitive & status-oriented situations To be more concerned with prestige
McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for affiliation: (nAff) Motive strive for friendship Prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones Desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding
II) Cognitive Evaluation Theory Introduction of extrinsic rewards (pay etc.) for work effort that was previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall motivation. Individual experiences a loss of control over his/her own behavior => previous intrinsic motivation decreases. Verbal rewards versus tangible rewards
III) Goal-Setting Theory Specificity of the goal acts as an internal stimulus If factors (acceptance of goals) are constant => more difficult the goal, the higher level of performance (direct attention to the task, energize us, persistence, discover strategies) Self-generated feedback (monitoring own process): more powerful Goal commitment, task characteristics & national culture influence goal-performance relationship.
IV) Management by Objectives Setting goals that are tangible, verifiable & measurable Individual => Departmental => Divisional => Overall organizational Four ingredients are common: Goal specificity Participation in decision-making Explicit time period Performance period
V)Self-Efficacy (Social Learning) Theory An individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing a task How to develop self-efficacy? Enactive mastery: gaining experience with the task Vicarious modeling: seeing someone else doing the task Verbal persuasion: someone convincing that you have the skills to have success But intelligence & personality are absent!
VI) Equity Theory Comparing inputs (effort, experience, education, competence) and outcomes (raises, grading, recognition) to those of others O/I A Inequity of under rewarded O/I A = O/I B => Equity O/I A > O/I B => Inequity of over rewarded O/I A : Person (you) O/I B : Relevant others
When perceived inequity Change inputs (don’t exert as much effort) Change outcomes (lower quality) Distort perceptions of self (I work harder than everyone else) Distort perceptions of others Choose a different referent Leave the field
VII) Expectancy Theory Theory focuses on these relationships: Effort - performance Performance - reward Rewards – personal goals People will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when they believe that: Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal A good appraisal will lead to rewards Rewards will satisfy the personal goals