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Chapter 9 Motivation Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Motivation Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9 Motivation Explain what motivation is and why managers need to be concerned about it Describe from the perspectives of expectancy theory and equity theory what managers should do to have a highly motivated workforce. Explain how goals and needs motivate people and what kinds of goals are especially likely to result in high performance Identify the motivation lessons that managers can learn from operant conditioning theory and social learning theory Explain why and how managers can use pay as a major motivation tool.

2 The nature of motivation Motivation: psychological forces that determine the direction of a persons behavior in an organization, a persons level of effort, and a persons level of persistence Intrinsically motivated behavior: behavior that is performed for its own sake Extrinsically motivated behavior: behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment Prosocially motivated behavior: behavior that is performed to benefit or help others Outcome: anything a person gets from a job or organization Input anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization

3 Expectancy Theory ET : the theory that motivation will be high when workers believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to the attainment of desired outcomes Expectancy : a persons perception about the extent to which effort results in a certain level of performance Instrumentality : a persons perception about the extent to which performance results in the attainment of outcomes Valence : how desirable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person.

4 Expectancy Theory – Enterprise Rent a Car! Expectancy is high:Instrumentality is high:Valence is high: People perceive that if they try hard, they can perform at a high level People perceive that high performance leads to the receipt of certain outcomes. People desire the outcomes that result from high performance.

5 Need Theories Need : a requirement or necessity for survival Need Theories : theories of motivation that focus on what needs people are trying to satisfy at work and what outcomes will satisfy those needs. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs : an arrangement of five basic needs that, according to Maslow, motivate behavior. Maslow proposed that the lowest level of unmet needs is the prime motivator and that only one level of needs is motivational at a time.

6 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs NeedsDescriptionExamples of How Managers Can Help People Satisfy These Needs at Work Highest Level NeedsSelf-actualization needsThe needs to realize ones full potential as a human being By giving people the opportunity to use their skills and abilities to the fullest extent possible. Esteem needsThe needs to feel good about one self and ones capabilities, to be respected by others, and to receive recognition and appreciation. By granting promotions and recognizing accomplishments. Belongingness needsNeeds for social interaction, friendship, affection, and love. By promoting good interpersonal relations and organizing social functions such as company picnics and holiday parties Safety needsNeeds for security, stability, and a safe environment. By providing job security, adequate medical benefits, and safe working conditions. Lowest Level Needs (most basic and compelling) Physiological needsBasic needs for things such as food, water, and shelter that must be met in order for a person to survive. By providing a level of pay that enables a person to buy food and clothing and have adequate housing.

7 Herzbergs Motivator- Hygiene Theory A need theory that distinguishes between motivator needs (related to the nature of the work itself ) and hygiene needs (related to the physical and psychological context in which the work is performed) and proposes that motivator needs must be met for motivation and job satisfaction to be high. Intrinsic motivation: motivator needs Extrinsic motivation: hygiene needs

8 McClellands Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power Need for achievement : the extent to which an individual has a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well and to meet personal standards for excellence. Need for affiliation : the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal standards for excellence Need for power : the extent to which an individual desires to control or influence others.

9 Equity Theory ET : a theory of motivation that focuses on peoples perceptions of the fairness of their work outcomes relative to their work inputs. Equity: the justice, impartiality, and fairness to which all organizational members are entitled. Inequity: lack of fairness Underpayment inequity: the inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome-input ration of a referent. Overpayment inequity: the inequity that exists when a person perceives that his or her own outcome- input ratio is greater that the ratio of a referent

10 Equity Theory ConditionPersonReferentExample EquityOutcomes/inputs =Outcomes/inputsAn engineer perceives that he contributes more inputs (time and effort) and receives proportionally more outcomes (a higher salary and choice job assignments) than his referent. Underpayment inequityOutcomes/input Less than Outcomes/inputsAn engineer perceives that he contributes more inputs but receives the same outcomes as his referent. Overpayment inequityOutcomes/inputs greater than Outcomes/inputsAn engineer perceives that he contributes the same inputs but receives more outcomes than is referent.

11 Goal Setting Theory GST : a theory that focuses on identifying the types of goals that are most effective in producing high levels of motivation and performance and explaining why goals have these effects. How well can managers can ensure that organizational members focus their inputs in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals

12 Learning Theories LT : Theories that focus on increasing employee motivation and performance by linking the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors and the attainment of goals Learning: a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience

13 LT Continued Operant Conditioning Theory : the theory that people learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences o Positive reinforcement : giving people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functional behaviors o Negative reinforcement : eliminating or removing undesired outcomes when people perform organizationally functional behaviors o Extinction : curtailing the performance of dysfunctional behaviors by eliminating whatever is reinforcing them. o Punishment : administering an undesired or negative consequence when dysfunctional behavior occurs

14 Social Learning Theory SLT : a theory that takes into account how learning and motivation are influenced by peoples thoughts and beliefs and their observations of other peoples behavior o Vicarious learning : learning that occurs when the learner becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person performing it and being reinforced for doing so; also called observational learning o Self reinforcer : any desired or attractive outcome or reward that a person gives to himself or herself for good performance. o Self efficacy : a persons belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully.

15 Pay and Motivation Merit pay : a compensation plan that bases pay on performance. It can be on performance of individual, group, or organizational performance o Piece rate o Commission pay o Profit sharing Employee stock option : a financial instrument that entitles the bearer to buy shares of an organizations stock at a certain price during a certain period or under certain conditions.


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