Presentation on theme: "Motivation and Empowerment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Motivation and Empowerment Chapter 8Motivation and Empowerment
2 Chapter ObjectivesRecognize and apply the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.Motivate others by meeting their higher-level needs.Apply needs-based theory of motivation.Implement individual and systemwide rewards.Avoid the disadvantages of “carrot-and-stick” motivation.Implement empowerment by providing the five elements of information, knowledge, discretion, meaning, and rewards.
3 “The ultimate measure of a man is not where he stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but where he stands at times of challenge and controversy”Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
4 MotivationThe forces either internal or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action
5 Ex. 8.1 A Simple Model of Motivation Need Creates desire to fulfill needs (money, friendship, recognition, achievementBehavior Results in actions to fulfill needsRewards Satisfy needs: intrinsic or extrinsic rewardsFeedback Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and should be used again
6 Types of Rewards Intrinsic Rewards Extrinsic Rewards Internal satisfactions a person receives in the process of performing a particular actionExtrinsic RewardsRewards given by another person, typically a supervisor, such as pay increases and promotionsSystemwide RewardsRewards that apply the same to all people within an organization or within a specific category or department
7 Ex. 8.2 Examples of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards IndividualLarge merit increaseFeeling of self-fulfillmentPride in being part of a “winning” organizationSystemwideInsurance benefits
8 Ex. 8.3 Needs of People and Motivation Methods Conventional managementLeadershipLower needsHigher needsCarrot and stick (Extrinsic)Empowerment (Intrinsic)Growth and fulfillmentControl peopleBest effortAdequate effort
9 Ex. 8.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Need HierarchyFulfillment on the JobOpportunities for advancement, autonomy, growth, creativitySelf-actualization NeedsEsteem NeedsRecognition, approval, high status, increased responsibilitiesBelongingness NeedsWork groups, clients, coworkers, supervisorsSafety NeedsSafe work, fringe benefits, job securityPhysiological NeedsHeat, air, base salary
10 Ex. 8.5 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Highly SatisfiedMotivatorsAchievementRecognitionResponsibilityWork itselfPersonal growthArea of SatisfactionMotivators influence level of satisfactionNeither Satisfied nor DissatisfiedHygiene FactorsWork conditionsPay/securityCo. policiesSupervisorsArea of DissatisfactionHygiene factors influence level of dissatisfactionInterpersonal. relationshipsHighly Dissatisfied
11 Reinforcement TheoryBehavior Modification – the set of techniques by which reinforcement theory used to modify behavior.Law of effect – positively reinforced behavior tends to be repeated and behavior that is not reinforced is not repeated.
12 Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement – anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited.Positive reinforcement: a pleasant and rewarding consequence following a behavior.Negative reinforcement: the withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior is improved. (avoidance learning)
13 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement Punishment: the imposition of unpleasant outcomes following undesirable behavior.Extinction: the withdrawal of a positive reward so that behavior is no longer reinforce and therefore less likely to occur in the future.
14 Acquired Needs TheoryMcClelland’s theory that proposes that certain types of needs are acquired during an individual’s lifetimeThree needs most frequently studied:Need for achievementNeed for affiliationNeed for power
15 Ex. 8.6 Key Elements of Expectancy Theory Will putting effort into the task lead to the desired performance?E > P expectancyEffort PerformanceWill high performance lead to the desired outcomes?P > O expectancyPerformance OutcomesValence – value of outcomes(pay, recognition, other rewards)Are the available outcomes highly valued?Motivation
16 Equity TheoryA theory that proposes that people are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect for performance
17 Equity TheoryEquity = when my outcomes to inputs equals the ratio of other’s in work group.Inequity = when my outcomes to inputs to do not equal the ratio of other’s in work group.Outcomes: pay recognition, promotions and other rewardsInputs: education, experience, effort and ability
18 Carrot Stick Controversy Extrinsic rewards diminish intrinsic rewards.Extrinsic rewards are temporary.Extrinsic rewards assume people are driven by lower needs.Organizations are too complex for carrot and stick approaches.Carrot and stick approaches destroy people’s motivation to work as a group.
19 Managers Hope For But They Reward Teamwork and collaborationInnovative thinking and risk takingDevelopment of people skillsEmployee involvement and empowermentHigh achievementCommitment to loyaltyLong-term growthThe Best individual performersProven methods and not making mistakesTechnical achievements and accomplishmentsTight control over operations and resourcesAnother year’s routine effortShipping on time, even with defectsQuarterly earnings
20 EmpowermentPower sharing; the delegation of power or authority or to subordinates in the organization.
21 Elements of Empowerment Employees receive information about company performanceEmployees receive knowledge and skills to contribute to the company goals.Employees have the power to make substantive decisions.Employees understand the meaning and impact of their jobs.Employees are rewarded based on company performance.
22 EngagementBeing emotionally connected to the organization; being fully involved in and enthusiastic about his or her work and who cares about the success of the organization.
23 Motivational Programs Employee ownershipGainsharingPay for knowledgePay for performanceJob enrichment