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TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories

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1 TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories
Mustika Lukman Arief, SE. MBA. MM.

2 Materi Pengajaran Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori kebutuhan McClelland Alderfer’s ERG theory

3 Pengertian dan Model Motivasi
The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual need Model Motivasi Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori kebutuhan McClelland Alderfer’s ERG theory Source : Stephen P. Robbins

4 The Motivational Process : An Initial Model
Need deficiencies “I want to perform well to earn the promotion.” VI Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee “I still want the promotion. I’ve got to try another approach.” II Search for ways satisfy needs “I need to show the manager that I want the promotion work on tough assignments, work extra hours, help co-worker.” The Employee V Rewards of punishments “Received recognition award; granted the opportunity to attend training program.” III Goal directed behavior “The Promotion.” IV Performance (evaluation of goal accomplished) “Highest ratings on quantity, quality and cost containment.”

5 Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow
“That people’s needs depend on what they already have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs isn’t a motivator. Human needs, organized in a hierarchy of importance, are physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization” Source : Gibson

6 Social / Belongingness
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self actualization Esteem Social / Belongingness Safety Physiological Source : Stephen P. Robbins

View that job satisfaction results from the presence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from not having extrinsic factors Source : Gibson

8 Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Dissatifaction
I. Traditional High job satisfaction High job dissatisfaction II. Herzberg’s two-factor view High job satisfaction (motivator) Low job satisfaction High job satisfaction (hygiene) Low job dissatisfaction Source : Gibson

9 Teori Kebutuhan McClelland
Learned Needs Theory Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society Thematis Apperception Test (TAT) Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture to evaluate such individual differences as need for achivement, need for power, and need for affiliation Source : Gibson

10 The theory focus on three needs
Need for achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed 2. Need for power The need to make others behave in a way that they wouldn’t have behaved otherwise 3. Need for affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

11 Alderfer’s ERG theory Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorized needs as existence, related-ness and growth Existence; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions Related-ness; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship Growth; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions Source : Gibson

12 ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance and Satisfaction of Needs
of growth needs Importance Satisfaction of relatedness needs of existence needs Source : Gibson

13 A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation
Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualization Esteem Belongingness, social and love Physiological Herzberg (two factor theory) The work itself - Responsibility Advancement Growth Achievement Recognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with supervisor, with subordinates Job security Working conditions Salary Alderfer Growth Relatedness Existence Mc Clelland Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation Higher order needs Motivators Basic needs Hygiens conditions

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