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1 TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories Mustika Lukman Arief, SE. MBA. MM. www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com.

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Presentation on theme: "1 TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories Mustika Lukman Arief, SE. MBA. MM. www.mustikalukmanariefkefvin.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 TEORI MOTIVASI Content Theories Mustika Lukman Arief, SE. MBA. MM.

2 2 Pengertian dan Model Motivasi Pengertian dan Model Motivasi Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg Teori kebutuhan McClelland Teori kebutuhan McClelland Alderfer’s ERG theory Alderfer’s ERG theory Materi Pengajaran

3 3 Pengertian dan Model Motivasi Pengertian The willing to exert high levels of effort toward organization goals, conditioned by effort to satisfy some individual need Model Motivasi  Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow  Teori dua faktor Frederick Herzberg  Teori kebutuhan McClelland  Alderfer’s ERG theory Source : Stephen P. Robbins

4 4 The Motivational Process : An Initial Model I Need deficiencies “I want to perform well to earn the promotion.” IV Performance (evaluation of goal accomplished) “Highest ratings on quantity, quality and cost containment.” III Goal directed behavior “The Promotion.” II Search for ways satisfy needs “I need to show the manager that I want the promotion work on tough assignments, work extra hours, help co- worker.” V Rewards of punishments “Received recognition award; granted the opportunity to attend training program.” VI Need deficiencies reassessed by the employee “I still want the promotion. I’ve got to try another approach.” The Employee

5 5 Teori hirarki kebutuhan Maslow “That people’s needs depend on what they already have. In a sense, then, a satisfied needs isn’t a motivator. Human needs, organized in a hierarchy of importance, are physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self actualization” Source : Gibson

6 6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self actualization Esteem Social / Belongingness Safety Physiological Source : Stephen P. Robbins

7 7 TEORI DUA FAKTOR FREDERICK HERZBERG View that job satisfaction results from the presence of intrinsic motivators and that job dissatisfaction stems from not having extrinsic factors Source : Gibson

8 8 Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction-Dissatifaction I. Traditional High job dissatisfaction High job satisfaction II. Herzberg’s two-factor view Low job satisfaction High job satisfaction (motivator) Low job dissatisfaction High job satisfaction (hygiene) Source : Gibson

9 9 Teori Kebutuhan McClelland Learned Needs Theory Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society Thematis Apperception Test (TAT) Projective test that uses a person’s analysis of picture to evaluate such individual differences as need for achivement, need for power, and need for affiliation Source : Gibson

10 10 The theory focus on three needs 1. Need for achievement 3. Need for affiliation The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed 2. Need for power The need to make others behave in a way that they wouldn’t have behaved otherwise The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

11 11 Alderfer’s ERG theory Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorized needs as existence, related-ness and growth Source : Gibson Existence; needs satisfied by such as food, air, water, pay and working conditions Growth; needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions Related-ness; needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationship

12 12 ERG Theory Relationships among Frustration, Importance and Satisfaction of Needs Frustration of growth needs Importance of growth needs Satisfaction of growth needs Frustration of relatedness needs Importance of relatedness needs Satisfaction of relatedness needs Frustration of existence needs Importance of existence needs Satisfaction of existence needs Source : Gibson

13 13 A graphic Comparison of Four Content Theories of Motivation Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualizationEsteem Belongingness, social and love PhysiologicalHerzberg (two factor theory) The work itself - Responsibility - Advancement - Growth AchievementRecognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers, with supervisor, with subordinates Job security Working conditions SalaryAlderferGrowthRelatednessExistence Mc Clelland Need for achievement Need for power Need for affiliation Higher order needs Basic needs Motivators Hygiens conditions


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