Presentation on theme: "CHP: 13 BIOTECHNOLOGY. GENETIC ENGINEERING The procedure for cleaving DNA from an organism into smaller fragments & inserting the fragments into another."— Presentation transcript:
TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS Organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA Steps to produce transgenic organisms 1. Isolate the foreign DNA to be inserted 2. Join the DNA w/something that can transport it 3. Transfer the recombinant DNA into a host Used in medicine & agriculture
RESTRICTION ENZYMES Bacterial proteins that have the ability to cut both strands of the DNA molecule at certain points DNA can only be used for recombination when it is cut into smaller fragments STICKY ENDS- result of cutting the DNA into double stranded fragments. The ends can be joined to complementary strands to form recombinant DNA. They join easily because the ends are sticky
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT International effort to map & sequence human DNA The sequence is 3 billion base pairs of DNA LINKAGE MAP- genetic map that shows the location of genes on a chromosome CROSSING OVER- occurs during meiosis, the offspring have a combination of alleles not found in either parent. Genes that crossover are closer together than those that rarely do
Diagnosis of genetic disorders would be easier if the DNA sequence is known CELL CULTURE- to obtain a sample of DNA, cells are grown in a nutrient medium, cells are all identical (clones) GENE THERAPY- insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct a genetic disorder. In the trial stage for humans, 1 st trial has been on cystic fibrosis patients (nasal spray)
DNA FINGERPRINTING Used to convict/acquit individuals in a criminal case. Each person is genetically different Obtained from blood, skin, hair, semen. They use electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments.
VECTOR TRANSFER DNA The cleaved fragments of DNA must recombine w/something else Vector- means by which foreign DNA can be transferred into the host cell. 2 TYPES OF VECTORS 1. Mechanical- micropipette or tiny bullets (metal) coated w/pieces of DNA shot into the cell using a gene gun 2. Biological- viruses & plasmids. Plasmid- small ring of DNA found in bacterial cells
GENE SPLICING Rejoining cut DNA fragments Foreign DNA is recombined into a plasmid or viral DNA GENE CLONING Process of making genetically identical copies of recombinant DNA Cloning is possible because a foreign piece of DNA has been integrated into that cell’s DNA and is replicated w/the hosts DNA
DNA SEQUENCING Sequencing is important to understand DNA GEL ELECTROPHORESIS- a set of DNA strands that vary in lengths are produced. The strands are placed in a gel w/dye which binds to DNA. Then an electric current is passed through it. Bands appear in the gel sequence. Small fragments move farther than larger ones
Applications of DNA Technology Transgenic bacteria in agriculture- removal of a certain gene from a bacterium prevents frost damage to crops. Industry- engineered to break down pollutants, degrade oil Medicine- produce molecules to treat human diseases, produce growth hormones, interferon for cancer, human insulin
Transgenic Plants Difficult to insert DNA into plants because of the cell walls (use gene gun) Genetically engineered to resist herbicides, produce internal pesticides, increase protein production, produce fruit that ripens later, or grow in unfavorable conditions.
Transgenic Animals Use genes to produce livestock that is bigger or produces more milk, or milk that contains certain chemicals (protein that dissolves blood clots)