Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Guess the lamb’s name"— Presentation transcript:
1 Biotechnology Guess the lamb’s name DOLLY!--THIS IS A PHOTO OF THE FAMOUS CLONED SHEEP
2 Goals of Applied Genetics Help humans create crops that can be frost resistantUse transgenic organisms to help medical researchers model human physiology for testingHelp industry to create bacteria to break down pollutants into harmless productsPharmaceutical companies use recombinant DNA to cheaply produce human hormones (insulin) and other proteinsHelp solve crimes and determine familial relationships
3 Selective breeding Selecting organisms with the most desirable traits Requires time and several generations to produce offspring with the desired traitEx:Short vs long haired catsMilk production in cattleDisease resistant foodsBacteria that break down oil
4 Genetic EngineeringAlso called, recombinant DNA technology or gene cloningUses a bacterial host because of fast reproduction and a circular DNA vehicle to hold the foreign DNA=plasmidOrganisms containing recombinant DNA or foreign DNA are known as transgenic
5 Steps involved:select the desired gene(s) to be inserted into the organism and a bacterial host containing a plasmid (vehicle to hold the desired gene)cut specific DNA molecules into fragments with special (restriction) enzymessplice (rejoin) the fragments (gene and plasmid) together in the desired combinationintroduce or insert the new DNA into a living cell for replication (mitosis)
11 VectorsVector: in nature, an organism that can transmit DNA to another organism, often an infectionBiotechnology uses this ability to transfer desired genetic information to a host cell.
12 Gene Libraries Store DNA sequences for biotech applications May use plasmid or phage(Phage: virus that infects bacteria and looks like a spaceship)May contain entire genome or only DNA used in gene expression.Expressed DNA is called cDNA (complementary DNA) and is made from mRNA with the enzyme...
14 Gene CloningUsed to produce genetically identical copies of a cell, tissue, organ, and/or organismNeeded to produce multiple copies of the desired DNA
15 Cloning Applications Currently Plants are cloned to produce a large number of genetically identical plants in a short amount of timeFuture?Clone productive and healthy animals to increase yield for farmers and to grow organs for transplants
17 Gene TherapyThe insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis.
18 DNA Fingerprinting Obtain a small sample of DNA Make millions of copies using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) techniqueCleave (cut) DNA with restriction enzymesSeparate DNA fragments using gel electrophoresis and compareEach human’s DNA will have some unique pieces because each of our DNA is unique
19 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) RFLP: Each individual.....has different numbers of restriction sites...different # of base pairs between restriction sitesGel electrophoresis is used to create a DNA fingerprint of these unique sizes.Small amounts of DNA are loaded into wells in the gel.An electric current pushes the small pieces of DNA farther down the gel than the larger pieces.
20 RFLP DNA patterns are compared to known patterns. Used for forensics, blood samples, and paternity tests (children get half their bands from mom and half from dad)
27 The Human Genome Project There are approximately 80,000 genes on the 46 human chromosomesHuman Genome Project- an international effort to completely map and sequence human chromosomes (April 2003)
28 Southern BlottingPurpose: to use a cloned gene to probe for the same gene in another sample.Named for Edward M. Southern-Western and Northern Blots play on that nameThese have slightly different procedure (Western involves protein rather than DNA)
29 Southern Blotting Unknown DNA is run on a gel. DNA bands are blotted onto special paper.Paper is flooded with labeled complementary DNAp32
30 Southern BlottingHybridization: Single stranded DNA probe binds to any complementary DNA on paper, and the rest is washed offBands that are hybridized are radioactive and can be visualized.
31 Uses of Radioactive Probes Biochemists use radioactive probes to find things such as:GenesProteinsEnzymesReceptors on membranesAntigens (by using radioactive antibodies)
32 BioinformaticsThis area of study uses genetic material (or any biological material) to gather information.Such as…
33 BioinformaticsWhether a gene is similar to a previously sequenced gene.Whether a specific gene is correlated with a specific disease, such as which genes are prevalent in cancer cells.Whether a certain drug can benefit or harm a patient based on the patient’s genotype.
34 CreditsThis Power Point was provided by Abby Price and modified by Andrea Wise, Providence High School, 2007