Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human."— Presentation transcript:
Biotechnology Biotechnology is the use of biological processes, organisms, or systems to manufacture products intended to improve the quality of human life.
4 Areas of Biotechnology Agriculture Industry Forensics Medicine
Genetic Engineering- (A.K.A. Recombinant DNA Technology) frequency of an allele in a population *involves cutting (cleaving) DNA from one organism into small fragments & inserting the fragments into a host organism of the same or a different species
AMAZING!!! Organism will use the foreign DNA as if it were its own!! Transgenic Organism- organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA (rDNA) from a different organism
How is a transgenic organism formed?? Isolate foreign DNA fragment Attach DNA fragment to a “vehicle” (vector) Transfer “vehicle” (vector) into a host organism
Forming transgenic organisms and therefore clones of genes
Isolating foreign DNA fragments -Restriction Enzymes- DNA cutting enzymes that can cut both strands of a DNA molecule at a specific base pair sequence (A-T, C-G) -similar to cutting a zipper into pieces -must find the same sequence of base pairs on both DNA strands but they must run in opposite directions (like a palindrome-words that read the same forwards and backwards) ex. Racecar, mom, dad, etc.
Isolating DNA fragments -when the DNA is cut, double-stranded fragments with single-stranded ends are formed (called “sticky ends”) -2 matching sticky ends join together Sticky ends
Vectors transfer DNA Vector-means by which DNA from another species can be carried into the host cell Mechanical Vectors Micropipette-inserts into a cell Gene guns- tiny metal bullet is coated with DNA and shot into the cell with a gene gun
More types of Vectors Biological Vectors Viruses Plasmids-small ring of DNA found in bacteria cells that is separate from the bacteria’s normal set of DNA Plasmid usually contains genes that may cause the bacteria to be resistant to certain antibiotics
Gene Splicing/Cloning using a bacterial plasmid After the foreign DNA has been spliced (glued) into the plasmid using an enzyme DNA ligase, the rDNA is transferred into a bacterial cell -IMPORTANT plasmid replicates separately from the bacterial chromosome & can produce up to 500 copies per bacterial cell -bacteria reproduce quickly (20 min) so a lot of rDNA is made very fast Clone- genetically identical copies of rDNA molecules -Host cell produces the protein coded for by the rDNA
Applications of DNA technology rDNA in Industry 1. genetically engineered bacteria can degrade oil faster than naturally occurring bacteria (clean oil spills) 2. remove sulfur from coal before it is burned 3. produce phenylalanine to produce aspartame (main ingredient in Nutrasweet)
rDNA in industry 4. biofilters to degrade chemicals that might escape into the air from factories 5. transgenic animals- animal eggs can take up the gene for bovine growth hormone (BGH)-used to make larger fish, cows, pigs, rabbits, sheep
rDNA in Medicine 1. Human growth hormone to treat dwarfism 2. Human gene for insulin is inserted into a bacterial plasmid and the rDNA bacteria can make mass amounts of insulin very quickly to help diabetes patients
rDNA in Medicine 3. Gene pharming- use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals ex. Genes that code for therapeutic proteins are incorporated into the animal’s DNA & the proteins appear in the animal’s milk
rDNA in Medicine -drugs are made for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, cancer, blood diseases by this technique ex. Antithrombin III, used to prevent blood clots during surgery is currently made by a herd of goats
rDNA in Agriculture 1. bacteria that normally live on strawberry plants cause frost damage to leaves/fruits b/c ice crystals form around a protein on the surface of each bacteria. Now the bacteria have been engineered to remove the gene for this protein & after rDNA is inserted the bacteria change from frost + to frost –
GMO’s-genetically modified organism Grapples- cross -Pluots- cross b/w plum b/w apple & apricot and grape
rDNA in Agriculture 2. bacteria that live on the roots of corn plants have been given the gene that produces insect toxin. The toxin protects the roots from insects. 3. Possibly engineer bacteria that live in soil to make more nitrogen (natural fertilizer) so farmers can cut back costs on fertilizers.
Plants have been genetically modified to produce insect toxin
Gene Therapy Gene therapy attempts to treat genetic diseases at the molecular level by correcting what is wrong with defective genes.genes Clinical research into gene therapy’s safety and effectiveness has just begun. No one knows if gene therapy will work, or for what diseases. If gene therapy is successful, it could work by preventing a protein from doing something that causes harm, restoring the normal function of a protein, giving proteins new functions, or enhancing the existing functions of proteins
Gene Therapy In vivo gene therapy requires that the gene transfer vector be delivered by direct tissue injection. 2) Ex-vivo gene therapy involves removing tissue from the patient, transfecting (or virally-infecting) the cells in culture, and then reimplanting the genetically altered cells to the patient.