4Applied GeneticsSelective Breeding- choosing organisms with the most desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
5Applied GeneticsInbreeding- mating closely related individuals; results in homozygous offspringAnimal breedPlant cultivar
6Applied GeneticsHybrids increase productivity and disease resistance in cropsUsually larger and stronger than purebred parentsHybrid sorghum
7Determining Genotypes Test Crosses- unknown genotype X known genotypeOffspring ratios indicate genotype of unknown parentHomozygous dominant if 100% heterozygoteHeterozygous if 1:1 ratioP. 340
813.2 Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic Engineering faster & more reliable method to increase the frequency of alleleInvolves cutting DNA from one organism & inserting it in anotherRecombinant DNA Technology
9Recombinant DNA Technology Transgenic organism has foreign DNATobacco plant with firefly DNA
11Recombinant DNA Technology Step 1- isolate foreign DNA fragment to be insertedStep 2- attach DNA fragment to a carrierStep 3- transfer into host organism
12Restriction Enzyme Cleaves DNA Restriction enzymes bacterial proteins with ability to cut DNA sequence at specific nucleotide sequencePalindromes-same sequence in opposite ordersHundreds of restriction enzymesFragments have sticky ends
13Vectors Transfer DNA Carrier that transports foreign DNA into host Here a retrovirus serves as vector for engineered bone cells.Can be biological or mechanicalBacterial plasmid is a small ring of DNAMicropipette or DNA coated bullet from a gene gunML 13.1, p. 343
14Gene Cloning Clones are genetically identical copies Each identical recombinant DNA molecule is called a gene clone.Recombinant DNA can be inserted in yeast, plant cells and animal cells.
15Animal Cloning Dolly the sheep first cloned animal, 1997 Dewey, first cloned deer, 2003
16Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR method to replicate DNA outside an organismThermocycler uses heat to separate DNA strandsEnzyme used to repeatedly replicate DNAUsed in crime investigations and diagnosis of infectious disease
17Sequencing DNA Sequencing DNA allows scientists to identify mutations Four tubes A, C, T & G tagged with different colorsStrands separated by size using gel electrophoresis
18Applications of DNA Technology IndustrialProduce chemical compoundsIndigo for dyeCheese productionLaundry detergentPulp & paper productsSewage treatment
19Applications of DNA Technology MedicalProduction of proteinsHuman growth hormoneInsulinAntibodiesEnzymes
20Applications of DNA Technology AgricultureCrop developmentInsect resistanceGenetically modified cropsVitamin fortified foodAllergy reduction
2113.3 The Human GenomeIn 2003 scientists in the Human Genome Project obtained the DNA sequence of 3 billion base pairs making up the human genome.It is nearly the same (99.9%) in all people.
2213.3 The Human GenomeOnly about 2% of the human genome contains genes which are the instructions for making proteins.Humans have about 30,000 genes; the functions of more than half of them are unknown.
2313.3 The Human GenomeAlmost half of human proteins share similarities with other organisms, underscoring the unity of life.Much is still unknown!
24The Human GenomeGenetic map that gives the relative location of genes on a chromosome is called a linkage map.Crossover occurs during prophase I of meiosis.Genes that crossover frequently must be farther apart.
25The Human GenomeBiotechnology increases the efficiency of mapping with new methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to make millions of copies of DNA fragments
26The Human Genome Sequencing the human genome: 1) cleaving DNA into fragments2) cloning fragments3) sequences alignedAll automated
27Applications Diagnosis of genetic disorders Can be diagnosed before birth using amniotic fluidIsolating DNAUsing PCR to analyze
28Applications Gene Therapy Insertion of normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disordersSCID, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia
29Applications New Methods of Crime Detection DNA fingerprints from non-coding DNA segments unique to individualCan be used even with ancient DNA such as mummies or historical figures