2 DefinitionIndividuals do not always internalize every norm of a societyThere are always individuals who break rules of their society or groupBehavior that violates significant social norms is called deviance.
3 The Nature of Deviance Violation of norms is often unavoidable Not all norm violations are considered deviant actsDeviant behavior varies from cultures, time periods, and societies:Murder is illegal, but is judged differently if a police officer kills someone in the line of dutyDivorce is legal in the United States but prohibited in the PhilippinesAll businesses used to be closed on Sunday, but now it has become more acceptable for businesses to be open.
4 Labeling Deviance To be considered a deviant an individual must: Be detected committing a deviant act (known to other people)Be stigmatized by society*A stigma is a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
5 StigmaA stigma is a mark of social disgrace that is used as a form of social controlEX: Having a criminal record labels you to the working world that you are a criminalA stigma can also be a negative social reaction that results from being a social deviantEX: labeling someone as “spoiled rotten” or with a bad reputation
6 5 Social Functions of Deviance Clarifies Norms: Sets the boundaries of acceptable behaviorsUnifies Groups: Determines who is a conforming member of society and who is notDiffuses Tension: Allows individuals to relieve tension related to their unhappiness with societyPromotes Social Change: When large numbers of people violate norms, it is an indication that something in society needs to be changedProvides Jobs: Judges, lawyers, police officers, prison workers, crime reporters are all required because social deviance exists
7 Crime Crime affects everyone’s lives, either directly or indirectly A crime is an act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government.
8 Types of CrimesViolent Crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assaultCrime Against Property: burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, arsonVictimless Crime: prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use, vagrancyWhite Collar Crime: fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, price fixingOrganized Crime: Crime syndicate large-scale organizations that control business through violence (mafia)