2 What is Deviance?Deviance- behavior that violates significant social normsActs of Deviance may be judged differently based on…The situationThe societyTime periodPeople may be considered deviant based on…Continuously breaking a normExample: Continuously getting speeding ticketsCommitting an act that has serious negative consequences for society
3 Labeling Someone as Deviant Two parts to labeling someone as deviant:Must be caught committing a deviant actMust be stigmatized by societyStigma- mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of societyCan be outwardsigns, but usuallyare negative socialreactions that resultfrom being labeleddeviant.
4 Social Functions of Deviance Émile Durkheim found that deviance fulfills some social functions:Clarify norms- When rules are broken and the guilty are caught, members of society are reminded of the normsUnify the group- Drawing the line between conforming members and “outsiders” creates a sense of community and belief in shared valuesDiffuse tension- committing minor acts of deviance to relieve tension without disrupting society in a major wayPromote social change- When large numbers of people defy a particular norm it points out that that particular norm may need to be changedAnother social function deviance fulfills:Providing jobs: Provides jobs to help maintain normsExamples:Judges, police, crime reportersCriminologists- social scientists who study criminal behavior
5 Deviance Perspectives: Where Does It Come From? Functionalist: natural part of societyConflict: power and inequalityInteractionist: influence of individuals’ interaction
6 Functionalist Perspective Developed by sociologist Robert K. MertonStrain Theory- deviance is the natural result of social structures within society (based on values, norms, and structure)Anomie-situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable.Occurs when people cannot meet society’s approved goals because they do not have the means.Leaves individual without sufficient guidelines for behavior causing confusion for individuals and for society.
7 Functionalist Perspective Cont’d Ways in which individuals respond to culturally approved goals and legitimate means of achieving these goals:Conformity- accepting goals and means for achieving goalsMost commonOnly way which does not include deviant behaviorInnovation- accept the goals, but do not accept approved means for achieving goalsCome up with new plans for achieving goalsExample: Drug dealers want to be economically successful (acceptable goal), but reach that goal illegallyRitualism- reject the goals, but accept approved means for achieving goalsHave a ritual of upholding normsExample: A worker who does not care about money, but still continues to work hard and be promoted
8 Functionalist Perspective Cont’d Ways in which individuals respond to culturally approved goals and legitimate means of achieving these goals:Retreatism- rejection of goals and rejection of acceptable means to obtain themExamples: beggars, drug addictsRebellion- rejection of goals and means to obtain them and replace them with new goals and ways to obtain themExamples: revolutionary movementsStrain Theory Video
10 Conflict PerspectiveConflict Perspective- competition and social inequality lead to devianceSocial life is a struggle between the upper class and the lower classPeople with power commit deviant acts to maintain their powerPeople from lower classes commit deviant acts for one of two reasons:To obtain economic rewardsHave low self-esteem and feelings ofpowerlessness
11 Conflict Perspective Cont’d Conflict theorist, Richard Quinney, believes that the ruling class defines what behavior is deviant. The ruling class also develops ideologies that explain deviance as a problem found primarily among lower classes.The law system enforces the type of laws lower class individuals commit vs. the type of laws ruling class individuals commitExample: Lower class selling drugs vs. upper class embezzling moneyExample: Celebrity caught with drugs vs. lower class caught with drugs
12 Interactionist Perspective Interactionists have three different theories:Control TheoryCultural Transmission TheoryLabeling Theory
13 Interactionist Perspective: Control Theory Control Theory- believes deviance is a natural occurrence but focuses on why people conform rather than the causes of devianceSocial ties determine conformityStrong ties=conformityWeak ties=deviant actsControl Theorist, Travis Hirschi, found that people develop strong social bonds by…Form attachments with others who accept the norms of societyHave strong belief in moral codes of societyShow commitment to traditional societal values and goalsFully involved in nondeviant activitiesTravis Hirschi and Michael Fottfredson found that conformity is the result of self-controlSelf-control determined by socialization especially during childhoodRewards and punishments
14 Interactionist Perspective: Cultural Transmission Theory Cultural Transmission Theory- deviance is a learned behavior learned through interaction with othersDifferential Association- frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individualsThe more a person interacts with those committing deviant acts, the more likely he/she is to be a deviant
16 Interactionist Perspective: Cultural Transmission Theory Cont’d Techniques of Neutralization- suspending moral beliefs to commit deviant actsGresham Sykes and David Matza identified these techniques:Denying responsibilityEx: “It was an accident”Denying injuryEx: “No one was hurt”Denying the victimEx: “He had it coming”Condemning the authoritiesEx: “The courts are corrupt”Appealing to higher loyaltiesEx: “I was protecting my family”
17 Interactionist Perspective: Labeling Theory Labeling Theory- how individuals come to be labeled as deviantAll people commit deviant acts that range in seriousness. Not everyone is labeled as deviant though.
18 Interactionist Perspective: Labeling Theory Two types of Deviance:Primary Deviance- nonconformity that goes undetected by authorityMay be well-concealed, may not be well-concealedNot considered deviantsSecondary Deviance- individual is labeled as deviant and accts the label as trueDegradation Ceremony- in a public setting the individual is denounced, found guilty, and given new identity of deviantLabeling someone as a deviant may cause that person to continue coming deviant acts
19 Cultural Transmission PerspectiveTheoryQuestionsFunctionalistHow do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion)StrainConflictWhat is the result of competition and social inequality? (deviance) Who decides what is deviant? (ruling classes)InteractionistWhy do people conform to norms? (strength of social ties determines conformity)ControlHow do people learn conformity or deviance? (through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (primary groups)Cultural TransmissionHow do people become identified as deviant? (through secondary deviance, or being detected as deviant)Labeling