Introduction What do all of these behaviors have in common? Continuously talking to oneself in public. Drag racing on a public street or highway. Regularly using illicit drugs. A man wearing women’s clothing Attacking another person with a weapon.
Introduction Individuals do not internalize every norm. Even sanctions cannot bring about complete social control. Behavior that violates significant social norms is known as deviance.
The Nature of Deviance What is considered deviant also varies from society to society. Divorce- legal in the U.S./illegal in the Philippines Store hours on Sundays The number of occurrences of an action can help to determine if you are deviant or not. Speeding ticket- not necessarily deviant based on one ticket. Murder- probably deviant if you kill someone
The Nature of Deviance How is someone labeled as being deviant? 1. They must be detected (caught) for the deviant act. Ex. Tax evasion, gambling, insider stock trading. 2. They are then stigmatized- A mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society. What are some stigmas attached to social deviants?
The Social Functions of Deviance Clarifying Norms Unifying the Group Diffusing Tension Promoting Social Change Providing Jobs
Clarifying Norms Deviance serves to define the boundaries of acceptable behavior. (what is ok and what is not ok) People may choose not to commit deviant acts if they are aware of how severe the consequences are Punishments- Singled out in class, detentions, ISA, OSS. Tickets/fines, jail, death penalty Sins- Heaven and Hell
Unifies the Group Deviance serves to draw the line between the conforming members and the “outsiders” of a society. Emile Durkheim believed that deviance is so important that if it did not already exist in its base form, we (as a society) would have to invent it. Ex. Us v. Them, Good v. Evil, Righteous v. Sinner, Left v. Right, Americans v. Al Qaeda, etc. Good Evil
Diffuses Tension When people are unhappy with their lives, they may want to strike out at society. Minor actions/acts of disobedience release anger, stress, etc. without total chaos. Ex. Strikes, protests, speeding, cutting class.
Promoting Social Change Deviance can help prompt social change by identifying problem areas. How can we change for the better if we can’t/don’t accept that there is a problem? (personally or as a society) Ex. 1960s riots for desegregation, Vietnam protests. To get better you need to accept that there is a problem (therapy).
Provides Jobs Write down 3 of these Courts Police Corrections (prison guards, parole officers) Criminologists Social workers Gun companies Security companies (ADT)
Explaining Deviance The functionalist perspective explains deviance as a natural part of society. The conflict perspective explains deviance in terms of power and inequality. The interactionist perspective looks at how interaction among individuals influences behavior.
Functionalist Perspective Strain Theory- Developed by Robert K. Merton, views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society. Society judges people on economic success, however, there are some people, due to lack of education or social conditions, will not be able to live up to expectations. Nevertheless, they are judged on how well they meet these goals of success.
Functionalist Perspective When they have incompatible goals and means, individuals fall victim to anomie- the situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable. Anomie leaves people without sufficient guidelines for behavior.
Merton’s Structural Strain Theory of Deviance Mode of Adaptation Cultural GoalsCultural Norms ConformityAccept InnovationAcceptReject RitualismRejectAccept RetreatismReject RebellionReject and Replace Deviant Responses
Conflict Perspective Believe that competition and social inequality lead to deviance. They see social life as a struggle between those who possess power and those who do not.
Power No Power Commit deviant acts in order to maintain their position of power Commit deviant acts; 1. To obtain economic rewards. 2. Because they have low self-esteem and feelings of powerlessness Conflict Perspective
Interactionist Perspective 3 Major explanations of deviance: Control Theory Cultural Transmission Theory Labeling Theory
Control Theory Deviance is a natural occurrence. Interested in why people conform rather than the causes of deviance. Suggest that individuals who are integrated into the community are likely to conform. Those who have weak ties to the community are likely to commit deviant acts.
Assignment Page 178 #1-2 Page 186 Practicing the Skill Write at least 5 sentences.
Control Theory You may be asking yourself, how do people form strong social bonds? (write 2) People form attachments with each other Strong beliefs in the moral codes of society Show commitment to traditional societal values and goals (education or job) Fully involved in nondeviant activities- leaving no time for deviant activities
Cultural Transmission Theory Deviance is a learned behavior. The interaction is mainly through people who are committing deviant acts (the norms and values are deviant). Differential Association- If the majority of a person’s interactions are with a deviant, they are likely to become involved in deviance (gangs, organized crime, etc.)
Labeling Theory Focuses on how people become identified as being deviant. All people commit deviant acts throughout their lives, but not everyone is labeled as deviant. There are 2 types of deviance; Primary deviance- Nonconformity that goes unnoticed by those in authority. Secondary deviance- Results in the individual being labeled as deviant and accepting the label as true.
Labeling Theory The process of labeling an individual as deviant is usually accompanied by a degradation ceremony, which takes place in a public setting (public stoning, trial, etc.)
Crime Crime- Any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government. Ex. #1: A person robs a bank- an act that is labeled criminal, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government- has committed a crime. Ex. #2- A champion swimmer who stands by and watches his friend drown instead of attempting a rescue has not necessarily committed a crime.
Arrests by Race (2000)
Arrests by Sex and Race (2000) CharacteristicPercentage Total Sex Male78% Female22% Age Under % % % % % 55 and Over2.4%
Types of Crime The FBI organizes crimes in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) into 29 offense classifications. Crimes are grouped into 5 broad categories: Violent crimes Crimes against property Victimless crimes White-collar crime Organized crime
Violent Crime Includes; Murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. These crimes make up a small portion of reported crimes. According to the UCR, a violent crime happens every 22 seconds in the U.S.
Violent Crime Aggravated Assault- every 35 seconds Robbery- every 1 minute and 18 seconds Forcible Rape- every 5 minutes and 48 seconds Murder- every 33 minutes and 54 seconds Most victims of violent crime are African Americans African American males age victimization rate- 8x that of African American women, 8x that of white men, and more than 30x that of white women of the same age range.
Violent Crime Weapons- Guns are used in 65% of all murders (handguns used 51% of the murders) Knives are used in 13% The handgun use in homicides is higher in the U.S. than it is in any other industrialized country in the world.
Crime Against Property Includes- Burglary, larceny (theft other than auto), motor vehicle theft, and arson. Much more common than violent crimes. All property crimes involve stealing someone else’s property or intentionally damaging it. The FBI estimates that property crime is committed every 3 seconds in the U.S.
Crime Against Property Sociologists generally tie variations in the crime rate to changes in population Ex. People under 25 commit a large percentage of crime. As the size of that population changes, crime rates change in that same direction. However, other things can also explain an increase in crime. Ex. 1980s and 1990s illegal drug use
Victimless Crime Includes- Prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use, and vagrancy (homelessness and panhandling). These offenses are called victimless because they harm no one but the person committing the act. While this is true, the consequences for society (in the case of drug use) can be significant.
White-Collar Crime white-collar crime describes offenses committed by individuals of high social status in their professional lives (coined by Edwin Sutherland). Include- Misrepresentation, fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, price fixing, toxic pollution, insider trading, and political corruption.
White-Collar Crime Corporations can be charged even though the workers commit the offense under the laws of incorporation. Estimates suggest that white-collar crimes cost the U.S. more than $300 billion each year.
Organized Crime For some people, crime is an individual effort, but for some criminals they are part of an organized crime syndicate. A crime syndicate is a large-scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice (drugs, alcohol, etc.) or business through violence or the threat of violence.
Organized Crime Syndicates often use legitimate businesses as “fronts” for their criminal activity. This allows them to launder their money through legal channels. Organized crime syndicates use methods such as; drug trafficking, illegal gambling, hijacking, and loan sharking (lending $ at high interest rates).
Criminal Justice System The criminal justice system includes; Police, courts, and corrections
Police Police discretion: police have considerable power to decide who is actually arrested for a crime (not everyone who commits a crime gets arrested). Discretion involves the population of the U.S., the number of criminal offenses, and the number of full-time police officers.
Police Factors of police discretion Seriousness of the offense Wishes of the victim Attitude of the suspect Are bystanders present? Race Racial profiling: Assuming that nonwhite Americans are more likely to commit a crime than white Americans.
Courts The role of the courts is a twofold process: Court determines the guilt or innocence of an accused person by means of a trial If there is a guilty finding, the court assigns some form of punishment More than 90% of all criminal cases are settled through plea bargaining before trial.
Courts Plea bargaining: The process of legal negotiation that allows an accused person to plead guilty to a lesser charge in exchange for a lighter sentence. This process allows courts to reduce the volume of their caseloads.
Corrections Corrections: the sanctions used when people are found guilty of crimes. They include, imprisonment, parole, probation, and community service.
Corrections These sanctions serve 4 basic functions Retribution- punishment acts as revenge for society. Deterrence- discourage offenders for future crimes and make society think twice. Rehabilitation- Prisons’ goals are to reform criminals to return to society Social protection- freedom is limited to prevent future crimes
Corrections The effectiveness of corrections is a topic of heated debate. Recidivism- Repeated criminal behavior According to the U.S. Department of Justice study, 62% of released prisoners will be charged with a new crime and 41% will return to prison within 3 years of release.
Juvenile-Justice System The 3rd largest category of criminals in the U.S. consists of juvenile offenders (younger than 18). The reasoning behind having separate regulations was that juvenile offenders, could not be expected to be as responsible as adults.
Juvenile-Justice System Juvenile courts try to provide more services for offenders than do adult criminal courts (classes, diversion programs, etc). In larger cities, tougher juvenile laws are being established. Ex. Some juveniles (even very young children) can be tried as adults for certain serious offenses (murder)