2Deviance Deviance: Behavior that violates social norms Murder Rape ArsonGraffitiFightingPicking your noseCross-dressingDrunk DrivingCheating on a test
3Deviance Across Cultures Deviance is culturally relativistic; it varies from society to societyIt also varies within societiesMurder is deviantPolice officer killing an armed suspect is not deviantRebel flag in Ohio is deviantRebel flag in Alabama is not deviantHIV / AIDS is deviant if you got it through drug use or sexual contactNot deviant if you acquired it through blood transfusion
4Why Does Deviance Happen? I. Cultural-Transmission or Differential Association Theory (Sutherland)Deviance is learned through interaction with othersDifferential association: if you interact more with deviant people, you will be deviantA deviant person is socialized into deviant normsInteractionist perspective
5II. Structural-Strain Theory (Durkheim and Merton) Deviance is a natural outgrowth of values, norms, and structure of societyCertain people can’t meet goals of society: AnomieFunctionalist perspective
6III. Control Theory (Hirschi) Similar to Structural-Strain theoryDeviance occurs in people who do not have close ties to the communityPeople with close ties are controlled by other community membersPeople without close ties have less to loseConsequences of deviance determine behavior
7IV. Conflict Theory Competition and social inequality lead to deviance Power struggleDeviance is defined by the group in power—anything threatening their power is “deviant”Group in power establishes ideologies that explain deviance as a lower-class phenomenon
8V. Labeling Theory (Lemert and Becker) Focuses on how people become labeled “deviant”All people commit deviant acts, but not everyone is deviantPrimary Deviance: nonconformity that goes undetectedSecondary Deviance: deviance that results in a person being labeled
9How Would Each Theory Explain the Columbine Shootings?
10The Columbine Massacre April 20, 1999 Littleton, COEric Harris and Dylan KleboldBoth had a criminal recordBoth were bullied at school“Trenchcoat Mafia”Both listened to “violent” musicBoth were classified as “Goths”12 students and 1 teacher killed21 students injured
11Why is Deviance Good for Society? 1. Unifies the Group “Us vs. Them”-Gives a Sense of community2. Clarifying Norms-Defines boundaries of behavior3. Diffusing Tension-Minor acts of deviance are a “safety valve”4. Identifying Problems-Tells which parts of society need change5. Provides Jobs-Judges, lawyers, police, prison guards, etc.
12CrimeCrime: An act prohibited by law and punishable by a governing bodyWho is committing crimes?1. Mostly Male: Generally more aggressive than females2. Mostly White in numbers, mostly Black by percentage3. Mostly under 25: More laws for those under 18-21
14Types of Crime 1. Violent Crime: Murder, rape, robbery -physical violence or threat of violence2. Crime against property: Burglary, arson-No person is physically harmed3. Victimless Crime: Prostitution, gambling, drug use-No harm to anyone except the perpetrator4. White Collar Crime: Fraud, tax evasion, toxic pollution-By people of high social standing5. Organized Crime: Drug trafficking, gambling, black market-large scale and professional
16The Criminal Justice System 1. Police: Make arrests-few crimes prevented by police2. Courts: Determine guilt or innocence—issue sentences3. Corrections-Recidivism: repeated criminal behavior65% in US—the highest in the world76% juvenile recidivism—also highest in the world-Approaches to correcting devianceRetributionDeterrenceRehabilitationSocietal Protection-Are we too nice?-Do we not rehabilitate?4. Juvenile Justice System: Different punishments for similar crimes-focus in on rehabilitation
18The US Prison SystemThe US has 5% of the world’s population and 25% of the world’s inmates1 in 5 inmates is sexually assaulted25% of all inmates are gang members35% of inmates are drug addicts80% are drug users25% of all prison beds are occupied by people who are mentally insaneOnly 12 of 5000 prisons have higher education programs700,000 inmates are released each year2/3 are back within three years
19History and Statistics The Death PenaltyHistory and StatisticsThe Death Penalty has existed since before ChristPunishable offenses have ranged from blasphemy to murderThe Death Penalty was strongly questioned by Enlightenment philosophers of the 1800sIn the US, the rate of capital punishment has changedIn 2002, 71 people in 13 states were executedTexas had the most with 3370 were by lethal injection, 1 by electrocution38 states use the death penaltyIn 2002, there were 3,557 inmates on death row (all for murder)There was a moratorium in the US from
22Arguments Arguments For Deterrent Punishment fits the crime Criminals forfeit their rightsRecidivism rate is so highEconomicalArguments AgainstPeople still commit crimesChance of innocence“Cruel and Unusual”Immoral / Human RightsEconomical