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3 Schools of Chinese Thought Part Two of Chapter 8.

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Presentation on theme: "3 Schools of Chinese Thought Part Two of Chapter 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 Schools of Chinese Thought Part Two of Chapter 8

2 The Warring States Period 475-221 BCE  Final centuries of the Zhou Dynasty  Chaos, civil unrest, 7 states fighting for power  Growing violence  Disharmony and disunity  These issues led many to find solutions to China’s problems…known as the Hundred Schools of Thought.  Some gained more prominence than others…

3 The 7 Warring States Map

4 School of Thought #1 Confucianism  Founder = Confucius (Kong Fuzi)  Wanted to be a high government official, but failed…became a teacher instead  Associated with Han Dynasty and later China (until 1900’s)  Believed in ethics (good conduct and moral judgment)  Philosophy centered on the duties and proper behavior of the individual in society

5 School of Thought #1 Confucianism  “The Analects” = collected teachings of Confucius compiled by students after his death  Humans are basically good…BUT they need good education, good outside influences, and good effort to maintain goodness  Emphasis on education, being polite, respect for elders, filial piety  Civil service exams for govt. positions  Unjust rulers can and should be replaced…Mandate of Heaven

6 School of Thought #1 Confucianism  Emphasis on Five Relationships  Ruler and subject  Father and son  Elder brother and younger brother  Husband and wife  Friend and friend  Everyone owes obedience to those “above” them, and in return, everyone owes loving responsibility to those inferior

7 School of Thought #2 Daoism (Taoism)  Founder = Laozi  Collected teachings – “Tao Te Ching”  Focus of Daoism = living in harmony with the natural order (“The Dao” or “The Way”)  Urges withdrawal from society and entrance into a world of nature  Pursuit of inner purity, reduction of desire

8 School of Thought #2 Daoism  Principal ethic = Wu-wei… or non-action. Do not struggle. Follow the natural path.  Acceptance and yielding  Belief in the goodness of man…people will choose good when left to their own devices  Yin and Yang – two opposing forces of nature  More personal…less about political order

9 School of Thought #3 Legalism  Founder = Han Feizi  Legalists viewed humans as inherently stupid and immoral…justified harsh leadership  Legalists believed in rules and laws that were strict, clearly spelled out, and enforced through a system of rewards and punishments  Sometimes equated with political realism

10 School of Thought #3 Legalism  Leader should monopolize power to prevent civil war  No interest in moral or philosophical questions, like the others  All citizens should be treated equally before the law, and effective application of the law will maintain order  Used by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi during the Qin Dynasty to restore unity and order to China

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