Presentation on theme: "Leading Unit-7. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Define Leading/leadership 2.Describe elements of leadership 3.Theories of Leadership."— Presentation transcript:
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Define Leading/leadership 2.Describe elements of leadership 3.Theories of Leadership 4.Leadership and Managerial Effectiveness 5.Motivation 6.The Hierarchy need theory 7.The Motivation-Hygiene Approach to Motivation L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Leadership is the relationship in which one person (leader) influences others to work together willingly on related tasks to attain organizational goals.
The Elements of Leadership Leaders – People who can influence the behaviors of others without having to rely on force. – People who are accepted as leaders by others. Process: what leaders actually do. – Use noncoercive influence to shape the group’s or organization’s goals. – Motivate others’ behavior toward goals. – Help to define organizational culture. Property: who leaders are. – The set of characteristics attributed to individuals perceived to be leaders.
Managers Vs Leaders Manager Characteristics Administers A copy Maintains Focuses on systems and structures Relies on control Short range view Asks how and when Eye on bottom line Imitates Accepts the status quo Classic good soldiers Does things right Leader Characteristics Innovates An original Develops Focuses on people Inspires trust Long range perspective Asks what and why Eye on horizon Originates Challenges the status quo Own person Does the right thing
Theories of Leadership 1.Trait Theories 2.Behavioral Theories -Michigan Studies -Ohio Studies -Managerial Grid 3. Situational/Contingency Theories -Fiedler’s contingency model -Path goal theory
Trait Theories What characteristics or traits make a person a leader? Great Man Theory: Individuals are born either with or without the necessary traits for leadership Trait theories of leadership sought personality, social, physical or intellectual traits that differentiate leaders from non leaders Trait view has little analytical or predictive value Technical, conceptual and human skills (Katz 1974)
Trait Theories Limitations : No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders. Limitations : No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.
Behavioral Theories Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.
Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of sub- ordinates in the search for goal attainment. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for their feelings.
University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
Managerial Grid Developed in 1964 by Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton. They used two dimensions (concerns for people and concern for production) as used by Ohio and Michigan studies The task centered dimension reflects concern for production or output and the people centered dimension reflects concern for people.
The Managerial Grid 1,9 Country club management Thoughtful attention needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to A comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo 9,9 Democratic Management Work accomplishment is from committed people, interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect 1,1 Impoverished Management Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership 5,5 Middle of the road Adequate organization performance possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of the people at a satisfactory level 9,1 Authoritarian/Task management Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimal degree 1 2 345 6 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for productionLow High Low High Concern for people
Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.
Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationship-oriented.
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness. Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Follower readiness: ability and willingness Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Willing Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Able and Unwilling Monitoring
Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Willing Unwilling Able UnableDirective High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring Follower Readiness Leadership Styles
The Nature of Motivation Motivation – The set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. – The goal of managers is to maximize desired behaviors and minimize undesirable behaviors. The Importance of Motivation in the Workplace – Determinants of Individual Performance Motivation—the desire to do the job. Ability—the capability to do the job. Work environment—the resources needed to do the job.
Content Perspectives on Motivation Content Perspectives – Focus on needs and deficiencies of individuals – Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, “What factors in the workplace motivate people?” Content Perspectives of Motivation – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory – McClelland’s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs
The Need Hierarchy Approach (Maslow) People must, in a hierarchical order, satisfy five needs: – Physiological needs for basic survival and biological function. – Security needs for a safe physical and emotional environment. – Belongingness needs for love and affection. – Esteem needs for positive self-image/self-respect and recognition and respect from others. – Self-actualization needs for realizing one’s potential for personal growth and development.
10–27 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source: Adopted from Abraham H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychology Review, 1943, Vol. 50, pp. 370-396.
The Need Hierarchy Approach Weaknesses of Maslow’s theory – Five levels of need are not always present. – Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same. – Cultural differences in categories and hierarchies.
The Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) People’s satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two independent sets of factors— motivation factors and hygiene factors. Theory assumes that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are on two distinct continuums: – Motivational factors (work content) are on a continuum that ranges from satisfaction to no satisfaction. – Hygiene factors (work environment) are on a separate continuum that ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction.
The Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) (cont’d) Motivation is a two-stage process: – Ensuring that the hygiene factors are not deficient and not blocking motivation. – Providing employees the opportunity to experience increase motivational factors through the use of job enrichment and the redesign of jobs. Criticisms of the Two-Factor Theory – Interview findings are subject to different explanations. – Sample population was not representative. – Subsequent research has not upheld theory.
Individual Human Needs (McClelland) The need for achievement – The desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. The need for affiliation – The desire for human companionship and acceptance. The need for power – The desire to be influential in a group and to be in control of one’s environment.
Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.