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Chapter 11: Basic Approaches to Leadership

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1 Chapter 11: Basic Approaches to Leadership
What is Leadership? The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Leadership plays a central part in understanding group behavior. There are many definitions of leadership and various theories have been proposed Is "Management" the same as "Leadership"? What does a manager do? What does a leader do? Why is “coping” important according to Kotter?

2 Trait Theories Theories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders. Some traits increase the likelihood of success as a leader, but none of them guarantee success. Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

3 Behavioral Theories Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.

4 Behavioral Theories Ohio State Studies
Initiating structure vs. Consideration University of Michigan Studies Employee oriented vs. production oriented The Managerial Grid Concern for people vs. concern for production (i.e. 81 different styles on which a leader's behavior may fall) Scandinavian Studies Effective leaders display “development- oriented behavior” (value experimentation, seeks new ideas, and generates and implements change)

5 Contingency Theories Fiedler Model
Effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader's style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.  Assumes an individual's leadership style is fixed. Identify style via the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale                 Leader-member relations                 Task structure                     Position power Match leaders and situations *Cognitive resource theory: stress unfavorably affects a situation. Intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader…

6 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision

7 Leader–Member Exchange Theory

8 Path-Goal Theory and Leader-Participation Model
A leader's behavior is acceptable to subordinates insofar as they view it as a source of either immediate or future satisfaction. Directive vs. supportive leadership Leader-Participation Model Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.  There are now 12 contingency variables in the latest revision of this model. This model is often too complicated for managers/leaders to actually put into place in organizations.

9 Summary and Implications for Managers
Leaders usually are the members of an organization who provide the direction toward goal attainment. Re: Traits - Generally speaking, individuals who are ambitious; have high energy, a desire to lead, self-confidence, intelligence, and are flexible are more likely to succeed as leaders than those without these traits. No particular style (behavioral theories) is effective in all situations Contingency models help us better understand leadership. Consider…..Task structure of the job, level of situational stress, group support, leader intelligence and experience, and follower characteristics (personality, experience, ability and motivation)

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