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11 Chapter Leadership and Trust Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-2 Learning Outcomes Define leader and leadership Compare and contrast early leadership theories Describe the four major contingency leadership theories Describe modern views of leadership and the issues facing today’s leaders Discuss trust as the essence of leadership Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-3 Who Are Leaders, and What Is Leadership? Leader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authority Leadership – The process of leading a group and influencing that group to achieve its goals Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-4 What Traits Do Leaders Have? Trait Theories of Leadership – Theories that isolate characteristics (traits) that differentiate leaders from nonleaders The seven traits shown to be associated with effective leadership are described briefly in Exhibit 11-1 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-5 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-6 What Behaviors Do Leaders Exhibit? Behavioral Theories of Leadership – Theories that isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-7 Leadership Behaviors Autocratic Style – A leader who centralizes authority, dictates work methods, makes unilateral decisions, and limits employee participation Democratic Style – A leader who involves employees in decision making, delegates authority, encourages participation in deciding work methods, and uses feedback to coach employees Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-8 Leadership Behaviors (cont.) Laissez-Faire Style – A leader who generally gives employees complete freedom to make decisions and to complete their work however they see fit – Study done by Lewin found laissez-faire style ineffective when compared to either autocratic or democratic leadership styles – Lewin found work quality and group satisfaction were highest in groups with democratic leadership. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-9 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-10 What Did the Ohio State Studies Show? Identified two categories that accounted for most of the leadership behavior Initiating Structure – The extent to which a leader defines and structures his or her role and the roles of employees to attain goals Consideration – The extent to which a leader has job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-11 How Did the University of Michigan Studies Differ? Also developed two dimensions of leadership behavior Employee Oriented – A leader who emphasizes the people aspects. Production Oriented – A leader who emphasizes the technical or task aspects Employee oriented leaders led to groups that were higher in productivity and job satisfaction Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-12 What Was the First Contingency Model? Fiedler Contingency Model – Leadership theory that proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the degree to which the situation allowed the leader to control and influence Least-Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire – Measures whether a leader was task or relationship oriented. Leader style assumed fixed. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-13 Three Contingency Dimensions Leader-member relations – the degree of confidence, trust, and respect employees had for their leader Task structure – the degree to which job assignments were formalized and structured Position power – the degree of influence a leader had over activities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-14 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-15 How Do Followers’ Willingness and Ability Influence Leaders? Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) – A leadership contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness Readiness – The extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-16 Four Situational Styles Telling (high task–low relationship) – The leader defines roles and tells people what, how, when, and where to do various tasks Selling (high task–high relationship) – The leader provides both directive and supportive behavior Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-17 Four Styles (cont.) Participating (low task–high relationship) – The leader and followers share in decision making; the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating Delegating (low task–low relationship) – The leader provides little direction or support Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-18 How Participative Should a Leader Be? Leader-Participation Model – A leadership contingency theory that’s based on a sequential set of rules for determining how much participation a leader uses in decision making according to different types of situations – This model assumes leader can adapt style to fit different situations. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-19 How Do Leaders Help Followers? Path-Goal Theory – A leadership theory that says the leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization’s or group’s goals Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-20 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-21 What Do Contemporary Views of Leadership Tell Us? Transactional Leaders – Leaders who lead primarily by using social exchanges (or transactions) Transformational Leaders – Leaders who stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-22 How Do Charismatic and Visionary Leaders Differ? Charismatic Leaders – Enthusiastic, self-confident leaders whose personalities and actions influence people to behave in certain ways (Jeff Bezos: Amazon) Visionary Leadership – The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future that improves on the present situation Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-23 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-24 Why Do Leaders Need to Empower Employees? Empowerment – The act of increasing the decision-making discretion of workers Those at the lower levels of the organization often have the knowledge to make quick decisions Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-25 Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
11-26 Trust is the Essence of Leadership Credibility – The degree to which followers perceive someone as honest, competent, and able to inspire Trust – The belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education
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