Leadership Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals I) Trait Theories II) Behavioral Theories III) Contingency Theories.
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Presentation on theme: "Leadership Ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals I) Trait Theories II) Behavioral Theories III) Contingency Theories."— Presentation transcript:
1 LeadershipAbility to influence a group toward the achievement of goalsI) Trait TheoriesII) Behavioral TheoriesIII) Contingency Theories
2 Trait Theories Traits can predict leadership Leaders born as leaders Personality characteristics- Big Five:Extroversion: assertive, sociableAgreeableness: cooperative, warmConscientiousness: responsible, organized, dependable, reliableEmotional stability: calm, self-confident (person’s ability to withstand stress)Openness to experience: creative, curious
3 II) Behavioral Theories 1) Ohio State Studies: Questions were asked to subordinates about their feelings & perceptions concerning their leadersInitiating structure: Behavior attempting to organize work, relationships & goalsConsideration: Person having job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinates’ goals & regard for their feelings
4 2) University of Michigan Studies Product-oriented: Emphasize technical & task aspects of the jobEmployee-oriented: Emphasize interpersonal relationships; taking personal interests in the needs of their subordinates=> Higher group activity & higher job satisfaction
5 Concern for production 3) The Managerial GridTwo dimensions, which a leader gives importance:(1.1): Impoverished(1,9): Country club(5,5): Middle-of-the-road(9.1): Task oriented(9,9): Team orientedConcernfor peopleConcern for production
6 II) Contingency Theories 1) The Fiedler Model: An individual’s leadership style is essential in success. LPC (Least-preferred co-worker) questionnaire.16 objectives (pleasant/unpleasant, open/guarded...) Situations:Leader-member relationsTask structurePosition powerChange leader to fit the position or vice versa.
7 2) Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of followers=> In-group: Higher performance ratings, lower turnover intentions, greater satisfaction with their superiors, higher overall satisfaction than those in out-group
8 3) Path-Goal TheoryLeader’s job is to assist his/her followers in attaining their goals & goals being compatible with organizationLeader’s behavior is acceptable: immediate source of current & future satisfaction; Motivational:Makes subordinate need satisfaction contingent on effective performanceProvides coaching, guidance, support & rewards necessary for effective performance
10 4)Leader-Participation Leadership behavior & participation in decision making are related7 Questions about structure, decision-making and subordinates => Decision Tree => Leadership styles (Autocratic, Supportive, Participative)
11 Inspirational Approaches to Leadership I) Charismatic Leadership: Vision, willingness to take risks to achieve that vision, sensitivity to followers’ needs, exhibiting behaviors that are out of ordinaryDark Side: Sometimes recklessly used organizational resources for their personal benefits
12 LeadershipII) Transactional Leadership: Ohio-State, Fiedler, Path-Goal Theory- Motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role & task requirementsLaissez-faire: Most passive, least effectiveManagement by exception: Ineffective, available only when a problem occursContingent reward: can be effective, but will not get employees to go beyond the call of duty
13 III) Transformational Leadership Encourage followers to be more innovative & creativeIdealized influence: Behaving in admirable ways that cause followers to identify with the leaderInspirational motivation: Articulating a vision that is appealing & inspiring the followersIntellectual stimulation: Taking risks, soliciting followers’ ideas => encourage creativity in followersIndividualized consideration: Attending each follower’s needs
14 IV) Authentic Leadership Role of ethics & trustAuthentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value & act on these values and beliefs openlyTheir followers consider them as ethical people