Presentation on theme: "What Is Leadership? Leadership Management"— Presentation transcript:
0 Basic Approaches to Leadership Chapter TWELVEBasic Approachesto Leadership
1 What Is Leadership? Leadership Management The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goalsManagementUse of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members
2 Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Leadership Traits Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleadersLeadership TraitsExtraversionConscientiousnessOpennessEmotional Intelligence (Qualified)
3 Trait Theories Limitations No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situationsUnclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traitsBetter predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders
4 Trait Approach Traits (examples) Assumption: Leaders are born ExtraversionConscientiousnessOpennessAssumption: Leaders are bornGoal: Select leadersProblemsTraits do not generalize across situationsBetter at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness
5 Behavioral Approach Assumption: Leaders can be trained Goal: Develop leadersProblem: Effective behaviors do not generalize across situations.Behavioral Theory Leadership behaviors can be taught.vs.Trait Theory Leaders are born, not made.
6 Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleadersOhio State Studies/University of MichiganInitiating Structure/Production OrientationConsideration/Employee Orientation
7 Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainmentConsiderationThe extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for his/her feelings
8 University of Michigan Studies Employee-oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among membersProduction-oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job
9 The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton) E X H I B I T 12–1
10 Leadership/Managerial Grid Building on the two studies at Ohio and Michigan, Blake and Mouton of the University of Texas in 1964 proposed a grid of leadership styles.Impoverished Management (1, 1): Managers with this approach are low on both the dimensions and exercise minimum effort to get the work done from subordinates. The leader has low concern for employee satisfaction and work deadlines and as a result disharmony and disorganization prevail within the organization. The leaders are termed ineffective wherein their action is merely aimed at preserving job and seniority.Task management (9, 1): Also called dictatorial or perish style.Here leaders are more concerned about production and have less concern for people. The style is based on theory X of McGregor. “The employees’ needs are not taken care of and they are simply a means to an end”. The leader believes that efficiency can result only through proper organization of work systems and through elimination of people wherever possible. Such a style can definitely increase the output of organization in short run but due to the strict policies and procedures, high labor turnover is inevitable.
11 Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5): This is basically a compromising style wherein the leader tries to maintain a balance between goals of company and the needs of people. The leader does not push the boundaries of achievement resulting in average performance for organization. Here neither employee nor production needs are fully met.Country Club (1, 9): This is a collegial style characterized by low task and high people orientation where the leader gives thoughtful attention to the needs of people thus providing them with a friendly and comfortable environment. The leader feels that such a treatment with employees will lead to self-motivation and will find people working hard on their own. However, a low focus on tasks can hamper production and lead to questionable results.Team Management (9, 9): Characterized by high people and task focus, the style is based on the theory Y of McGregor and has been termed as most effective style according to Blake and Mouton. The leader feels that empowerment, commitment, trust, and respect are the key elements in creating a team atmosphere which will automatically result in high employee satisfaction and production.
12 Contingency Theories Assumptions underlying the different models: All Consider the SituationFiedler Contingency ModelCognitive Resource TheoryHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership ModelPath Goal TheoryAssumptions underlying the different models:Fiedler: Leader’s style is fixed.Other’s: Leader’s style can and should be changed.
13 Fiedler ModelLeader: Style Is Fixed (Task-oriented vs. Relationship- oriented)Considers Situational Favorableness for LeaderLeader-member relationsTask structurePosition powerKey AssumptionLeader must fit situation; options to accomplish this:Select leader to fit situationChange situation to fit leader
14 Fiedler Model: The Leader Assumption: Leader’s style is fixed and can be measured by the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire.Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) QuestionnaireThe way in which a leader will evaluate a co-worker who is not liked will indicate whether the leader is task- or relationship-oriented.
15 Fiedler Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leaderTask StructureThe degree to which the job assignments are procedurizedPosition PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases
16 Findings of the Fiedler Model GoodTask-OrientedPerformanceRelationship-OrientedPoorFiedler asserts that if the leader’s style matches the situation, he or she will be effective. His model predicts that low-LPC, task motivated leaders will be effective in high and low situational control. High-LPC, relationship motivated leaders will be effective in moderate situational control.The Fiedler model has several practical implications for managers:Leaders must understand their style and the situation.Leaders should focus on changing the situation to match their style.A good relationship with followers can compensate for a lack of power.Leaders can compensate for task ambiguity through training and experience.FavorableModerateUnfavorableCategoryLeader-MemberRelationsTask StructurePosition PowerIGoodHighStrongIIWeakIIILowIVVPoorVIVIIVIII
18 Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that the level of stress in a situation is what impacts whether a leader’s intelligence or experience will be more effective.Research SupportLess intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals.Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
19 Contingency Approach: Hersey and Blanchard Situational Model Considers Leader Behaviors (Task and Relationship)Assumes leaders can change their behaviorsConsiders Followers as the SituationFollower task maturity (ability and experience)Follower psychological maturity (willingness to take responsibility)AssumptionsLeaders can and should change their style to fit their followers’ degree of readiness (willingness and ability)Therefore, it is possible to train leaders to better fit their style to their followers.
20 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness; the more “ready” the followers (the more willing and able) the less the need for leader support and supervision.LOW Amount of Follower Readiness HIGHAmount of Leader Support &Supervision RequiredHIGHLOW
21 Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) UnwillingWillingSupportive ParticipativeAbleDelegatingLeadership StylesHigh Task and Relationship OrientationsUnableDirective
22 Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) TheoryLeaders select certain followers to be “in” (favorites) based on competence and/or compatibility and similarity to leader“Exchanges” with these “in” followers will be higher quality than with those who are “out”Result: “In” subordinates will have higher performance ratings, less turnover, and greater job satisfaction.
23 Leader-Member Exchange Theory E X H I B I T 12–3
24 Path-Goal Theory Premise Leader must help followers attain goals and reduce roadblocks to successLeaders must change behaviors to fit the situation (environmental contingencies and subordinate contingencies)
26 Leader-Participation Model (Not for Exam) PremiseRule-based decision tree to guide leaders about when and when not to include subordinate participation in decision makingConsiders 12 contingency variables to consider whether or not to include subordinates in decision making
27 Contingency Variables in the Revised Leader-Participation Model Importance of the decisionImportance of obtaining follower commitment to the decisionWhether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decisionHow well structured the problem isWhether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitmentWhether followers “buy into” the organization’s goalsWhether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solution alternativesWhether followers have the necessary information to make a good decisionTime constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvementWhether costs to bring geographically dispersed members together is justifiedImportance to the leader of minimizing the time it takes to make the decisionImportance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skillsE X H I B I T 12–5