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Presentation on theme: "LEADERSHIP."— Presentation transcript:


2 Management vs. Leadership
Leadership and management are two different terms Management involves developing formal plans and monitoring results Leadership is about coping with change and establishing a vision

3 Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals Not all leaders are managers Not all managers are leaders

4 Theories of Leadership
Trait theories Behavioral theories Contingency theories

5 Trait Theories Personal traits or qualities that differentiate leaders
Charisma, enthusiasm, courage Research has not reveled a set of specific traits of the effective leader Leaders are born rather than made

6 Behavioral Theories Behaviors rather than traits differentiate leaders from non-leaders (Leaders are made not born) Ohio State Studies University of Michigan Studies The Managerial Grid

7 Ohio State Studies Identified in the late 1940s
Two categories of leader behavior Initiating Structure -refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment Consideration – refers to the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings

8 Ohio State Studies Research showed that leaders who are high in both dimensions tend to achieve high employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than those rated low on either or both dimensions (high concern for task and high concern for people)

9 University of Michigan Studies
Studies undertaken about the same time as the Ohio State studies Also identified two dimensions of leadership behavior Employee-oriented (emphasis on interpersonal relationships) Production-oriented (emphasis on the technical aspects of task)

10 University of Michigan Studies
Research showed: leaders who were employee-oriented were associated with higher work productivity and job satisfaction Leaders who were production-oriented tended to be associated with low group productivity and lower job satisfaction

11 The Managerial Grid A graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership style developed by Blake and Mouton A nine-by-nine matrix outlining 81 different leadership styles

12 Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid
1,9 9,9 1,8 1,7 1,6 1,5 5,5 1,4 1,3 1,2 1,1 2,1 3,1 4,1 5,1 6,1 7,1 8,1 9,1 (Low) Concern for People (High) Best “Laissez-faire” type “Authority” type (Low) Concern for Production (High)

13 Contingency Theories Leadership success may be contingent on the match between the leadership style and the situation Fiedler Model

14 Fiedler Contingency Model
Proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader Leader-member relations: The degree of confidence, trust, and respect employees have in their leader Task structure: The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (structured) Position power: The degree of influence the leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, promotions, increases

15 Fiedler Model (poor) Performance (good) Good Poor High Low Strong Weak
Task Oriented Relationship Oriented (poor) Performance (good) Leader-Member Good Poor High Low Strong Weak Task Structure Position Power

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