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Leadership Chapter 9 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e

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Presentation on theme: "Leadership Chapter 9 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e"— Presentation transcript:

1 Leadership Chapter 9 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 9/e
Stephen P. Robbins/Timothy A. Judge Chapter 9 Leadership

2 After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
Contrast leadership and management List the traits of effective leaders Define and give examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compare and contrast trait and behavioral theories Describe Fiedler’s contingency model Define the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrast transformational with transactional leadership Identify when leadership may not be necessary Explain how to find and create effective leaders

3 Leadership vs. Management
About coping with change Establish direction, align resources and inspire Management About coping with complexity Brings about order and consistency Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals.

4 Trait Theories Differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics Extroversion related strongest to leadership Conscientiousness and openness to experience also strongly related to leadership Traits can predict leadership Traits are better at predicting leader emergence than leader effectiveness

5 Behavioral Theories Assumes people can be trained to lead
Researched the behaviors of specific leaders Provides the basis of design for training programs

6 Ohio State Studies Developed two categories of leadership behavior
Initiating structure - attempts to organize work, work relationships, and goals.Assigns group member tasks, expects worker to maintain standard and emphasises meeting deadlines. Consideration - concern for followers’ comfort, well-being, status, and satisfaction. Mutual trust, respect for employee ideas and regard for their feeling.

7 University of Michigan Studies
Employee-oriented - emphasize interpersonal relations Production-oriented - emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job Employee-oriented behavior leads to higher productivity and satisfaction

8 Contingency Theories Fiedler Model Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Path-goal Theory

9 Fiedler Leadership Model
Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire used to determine basic leadership style (assumes this style is fixed)- rate 1 to 16 scale on various adjectives

10 Fiedler Contingency Dimensions –Matching with situation
Dimensions define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness: Leader-member relations – confidence,trust and respect Task structure – structured/unstructured Position power –hiring,firing,salary increase

11 Findings from the Fiedler Model

12 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
Leaders do differentiate among followers Disparities are far from random Followers with in-group status have: higher performance ratings lower turnover intentions greater satisfaction with their superiors higher overall satisfaction than those in the out-group

13 Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

14 Path-Goal Theory Leader’s job is to provide followers with the information, support or other resources necessary for them to achieve their goals Four leadership behaviors: Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement-oriented leader

15 Path-Goal Theory

16 Charismatic Leadership Theory
Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors

17 Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders

18 How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers
Articulates an appealing vision Communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that followers can attain them Conveys, through words and actions, a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate Engages in emotion-inducing behavior to demonstrate courage and convictions about the vision

19 The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership
Leaders don’t necessarily act in the best interest of the organization Use organizational resources for personal benefit Remake companies in their own image Allow self-interest and personal goals to override organization’s goals

20 Transformational Leadership
Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements Transformational leaders - inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization

21 Transactional vs. Transformational Leader

22 Full Range of Leadership Model

23 How Transformational Leadership Works
Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and creative Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more personal commitment to them Vision engenders commitment from followers and greater sense of trust

24 Authentic Leadership Authentic leaders know who they are, know what they believe in and value, and act on those values and beliefs openly and candidly If we’re looking for the best possible leader, it is not enough to be charismatic or visionary – one must also be ethical and create trust on the part of followers

25 Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Attribution theory of leadership says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals Leaders don’t always have an impact on follower outcomes due to organizational variables that can neutralize the leader’s influence or act as substitutes for leadership

26 Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
Selection: Personality test to look for traits associated with leadership Match leaders to situations Training: Train those willing to change their behavior Can teach implementation skills and transformational skills

27 Implications for Managers
Leaders influence group performance Leadership success depends somewhat on having “the right stuff” Leadership depends on the situation Transformational skills becoming more important Select and train based on traits and qualities

28 Summary Contrasted leadership and management
Listed the traits of effective leaders Defined and gave examples of the Ohio State leadership dimensions Compared and contrasted trait and behavioral theories Described Fiedler’s contingency model Defined the qualities of a charismatic leader Contrasted transformational with transactional leadership Identified when leadership may not be necessary Explained how to find and create effective leaders

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