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1 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. The process of providing direction, enerzising others,

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Presentation on theme: "1 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. The process of providing direction, enerzising others,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. The process of providing direction, enerzising others, and obtaining their voluntary commitment to the leaders vision. A leader creates a vision and goals, and influences others to share the vision and work toward the goals

2 2 Trait Theories Leadership Traits: CompetentCompetent Forward lookingForward looking InspiringInspiring Ambition and energyAmbition and energy The desire to leadThe desire to lead Honest and integrityHonest and integrity Self-confidenceSelf-confidence IntelligenceIntelligence High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledge Leadership Traits: CompetentCompetent Forward lookingForward looking InspiringInspiring Ambition and energyAmbition and energy The desire to leadThe desire to lead Honest and integrityHonest and integrity Self-confidenceSelf-confidence IntelligenceIntelligence High self-monitoringHigh self-monitoring Job-relevant knowledgeJob-relevant knowledge Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

3 3 3 basic tasks Leaders Managers Deciding what Setting a direction Planning & Budgeting Needs to be done (vision & strategies) Creating Network Make people accept Organizing & staffing & relationship the vision (Communication, (structuring orgn) credibility, empowerment) credibility, empowerment) Ensuring people Inspiring people Motivating, do the job (creating involvement, Controlling values, informal network) values, informal network)

4 4 Behavioral Theories Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made. Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

5 5 University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

6 6 Leadership Grid CC(1,9 ) 1 TM(9,9 ) 2 P 3 e 4 o 5 p 6 l 7 e 8 9/ 1 9/ 1IM(1,1)2P3r4o5d6u7c8tion 9 AC(9,1)

7 7 High HighC O Human Relations NSIDE Democratic Democratic R A Laissez-faire TION Low Initiating Low Initiating Autocratic AutocraticStructure

8 8 Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee- orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.

9 9 Contingency Theories Fiedlers Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.

10 10 Fiedlers Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Position Power Influence derived from ones formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.

11 11 Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers readiness. Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision Follower readiness: ability and willingness Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Willing Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Able and Unwilling Monitoring

12 12 Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) Willing Unwilling Able UnableDirective High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring Follower Readiness Leadership Styles

13 13 Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leaders job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

14 14 Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.

15 15 Transactional Leader Transactional leader – A leader who apply task and relationship behaviors to influence people to do what they want to achieve orgl. goals.Transactional leader – A leader who apply task and relationship behaviors to influence people to do what they want to achieve orgl. goals. Problem solvers – skilled to getting things done. They work through social and emotional behaviors to energize people.Problem solvers – skilled to getting things done. They work through social and emotional behaviors to energize people. Implementers – engaze in planning, organizing and making decisions. They are rational, systematic and highly organized.Implementers – engaze in planning, organizing and making decisions. They are rational, systematic and highly organized.

16 16 Transformational leader Transformational leader: A leader who enerzies others with vision and strategies of how to refocus and revitailze the larger organ. So that change meets peoples enduring needs.Transformational leader: A leader who enerzies others with vision and strategies of how to refocus and revitailze the larger organ. So that change meets peoples enduring needs. Pathfinder- An entrepreneurial and charismatic leader who is a visionary and dreamer concerned with pointing out pointing to where an organization ought to try to go.Pathfinder- An entrepreneurial and charismatic leader who is a visionary and dreamer concerned with pointing out pointing to where an organization ought to try to go.


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