Presentation on theme: "What Is Leadership? Leadership"— Presentation transcript:
1What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.The process of providing direction, enerzising others, and obtaining their voluntary commitment to the leader’s vision.A leader creates a vision and goals, and influences others to share the vision and work toward the goals
2Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Leadership Traits: Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.Leadership Traits:CompetentForward lookingInspiringAmbition and energyThe desire to leadHonest and integritySelf-confidenceIntelligenceHigh self-monitoringJob-relevant knowledge
33 basic tasks Leaders Managers Deciding what Setting a direction Planning & BudgetingNeeds to be done (vision & strategies)Creating Network Make people accept Organizing & staffing& relationship the vision (Communication, (structuring orgn)credibility, empowerment)Ensuring people Inspiring people Motivating,do the job (creating involvement, Controllingvalues , informal network)
4Behavioral TheoriesTheories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
5University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented LeaderEmphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.Production-Oriented LeaderOne who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
6Leadership Grid 1 2 P 3 e 4 o 5 p 6 l 7 e 8 CC(1,9) TM(9,9) 9/ 1 9/ 1IM(1,1)P3r4o5d6u7c8tion9 AC(9,1)
7High Democratic Low Initiating Autocratic Structure C O Human RelationsNSIDEDemocraticRA Laissez-faireTIONLow InitiatingAutocraticStructure
8Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change.Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employee-orientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their premise is that in a changing world, effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior.
9Contingency Theories Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.
10Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member RelationsThe degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader.Task StructureThe degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.Position PowerInfluence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary increases.
11Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.Unable and UnwillingUnable but WillingAble and UnwillingAble and WillingFollower readiness: ability and willingnessLeader: decreasing need for support and supervisionSupportive ParticipativeDirectiveHigh Task and Relationship OrientationsMonitoring
12Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (Hersey and Blanchard) UnwillingWillingSupportive ParticipativeAbleMonitoringLeadership StylesHigh Task and Relationship OrientationsUnableDirective
13Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
14Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
15Transactional LeaderTransactional leader – A leader who apply task and relationship behaviors to influence people to do what they want to achieve orgl. goals.Problem solvers – skilled to getting things done. They work through social and emotional behaviors to energize people.Implementers – engaze in planning, organizing and making decisions. They are rational, systematic and highly organized.
16Transformational leader Transformational leader: A leader who enerzies others with vision and strategies of how to refocus and revitailze the larger organ. So that change meets people’s enduring needs.Pathfinder- An entrepreneurial and charismatic leader who is a visionary and dreamer concerned with pointing out pointing to where an organization ought to try to go.