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ROOTS 26.2.

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Presentation on theme: "ROOTS 26.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROOTS 26.2

2 Function Anchor Absorb – H2O and minerals are “pulled” up through transpiration (H20 evaporates from leaves and pulls water from roots in the process)


4 ADAPTATIONS Adventitious Aerial prop Air Storage

Region of Cell Division – “Apical Meristem” Region of cell division Root Cap

Region of Elongation – gives length to root Region of Elongation Region of Cell Division

Region of Maturation Region of Cell Maturation – differentiate into specialized tissues – “Primary Root Stucture) Region of Elongation Region of Cell Division

8 Primary Root Structure
1st tissue to develop from Region of Maturation Epidermis- outermost, absorbs, protects, root hairs derived from here Cortex – storage, controls flow of water

9 Primary Root Structure…
Epidermis Pericycle Vascular Cylinder Pericycle – 2ndary growth from here Xylem – carries water Phloem – carries sugar Xylem Phloem Cortex

10 Secondary Growth Root hairs Lateral roots

11 Types of Root Growth Primary – growth in length
Secondary – growth in diameter

12 Arrangement of Vascular tissue
Flowering plants are divided into two groups based on structural differences Monocots Dicots

13 Monocot Root Tissue Arrangement

14 Dicot Root Arrangement

15 STEMS 23.3

16 FUNCTION Support Conduct water and food Storage photosynthesis

17 STRUCTURE Epidermis Cambium – mitotic; makes new xylem and phloem
Pith, Cortex – storage Bark – dead cells,protects from water loss Vascular tissue – xylem and phloem

18 Epidermis Cortex Xylem Cambium Phloem Pith

19 Arrangement of Vascular Tissue
Monocot – Vascular tissue is scattered bundles Dicots – Vascular tissue is arranged in a ring patterm

20 dicot monocot

21 Stem Growth Meristem - located on tips (growth in height - primary) and on sides (growth of branches - secondary) Cambium – growth in diameter – secondary; forms tree rings.

22 Types of Stems Woody Dead xylem cells form wood; adds strength
Grow in width each year Vascular tissue arranged in rings Bark protects Perennial – grow more than one season

23 Type of Stem… Herbaceous Soft, fleshy Usually green; no bark
Not much secondary growth (width) Vascular tissue is scattered. Annuals – only grow one season

24 Stem Adaptations Stolons/rhizomes – runners; cause vegetative propagation Tubers – underground stems; storage; potato Bulbs/corms – underground stems with fleshy leaves; onions, tulips, garlic

25 LEAVES 23.4

26 Function Photosynthesis
Transpiration – pulling water up from the roots and out the leaves

27 Structure Epidermis Upper – covered by cuticle
Lower – contains stoma with guard cells

28 Palisade layer – many chloroplasts Mesophyll – many air spaces
Cont. Palisade layer – many chloroplasts Mesophyll – many air spaces Vascular bundle – “veins”

29 Epidermis with cuticle
VEIN Epidermis with cuticle PalisadeLayer Mesophyll Stomata



32 External Structures Petiole – structure that attached leaf to stem
Blade – thin, flat area of leaf; different sizes, shapes & arrangement Mid rib – main vein Leaf margin – edge of leaf

33 Venation in Monocots and Dicots
Monocots – parallel leaf venation Dicots – netted venation


35 Pop Quiz

36 Adaptations in leaves

37 Flowers, Fruits & Seeds Ch. 24

38 Angiosperms reproduce using flowers.

39 Flowering Plants have:
Monocot Dicot 3 3 4 2 4 2 5 1 5 1 6 6 8 7 Multiples of 3 Multiples of 4 or 5 Flowers 6

40 Flowers Composed of modified leaves
Sepals – usually green; enclose bud Petals – brightly colored; just inside sepals Stamen – male reproductive organ Filament - stalk Anther – produces pollen (male gamete) Carpel (pistil) – female reproductive organ Stigma- sticky; pollen attaches here Style – narrow stalk Ovary – contains ovules

41 Anther filament

42 Parts of a Typical Flower
Stamen Anther Filament Male part of flower Parts of a Typical Flower

43 (Sounds like “Pigtail”)
Stigma Pistil Style Female part of flower (Sounds like “Pigtail”) Ovary Parts of a Typical Flower

44 Plant Reproduction Stems Roots Plantlets
Plants can reproduce asexually by vegetative propagation. Stems Roots Plantlets Stems, plantlets and roots can become a new plant.

45 Plants can reproduce asexually by
Plant Reproduction Plants can reproduce asexually by plant propagation. Cuttings Grafting & Budding A “cut” from a plant can grow roots when put in soil. Two plants are attached to form one plant.

46 Angiosperm Life Cycle Pollination – transfer of pollen from anther to stigma of carpel Often dependent on pollinators Pollen grows a tube through which sperm nuclei travel Fertilization – sperm nuclei fuse with ovule inside produce a seed Ovary ripens into a fruit

47 Fruits – ripened ovary ; type determined by structure of ovary and ovules
Dry Nuts Fleshy Drupes - apple Pomes - peach Berries Hesperidium - orange Pepo - cucumber Aggregate - raspberry


49 Seed Dispersal Animal Wind Water

50 Seed Germination Timing controlled by climate (moisture, temperature, etc.) Endosperm (food source) swells with moisture and cracks open seed coat Root emerges first Cotyledons emerge second Monocot – one seed leaf Dicot – two seed leaves

51 Plant Growth Controlled by hormones (auxins) Cause “tropisms”
Gravitropism Thigmotropism phototropism






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