Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae Objectives: - Know the different types of plants. - Know structures and functions of plant parts. - Be able to label and explain function."— Presentation transcript:
Objectives: - Know the different types of plants. - Know structures and functions of plant parts. - Be able to label and explain function of flower parts. - Know pollination, fertilization and germination - Know what tropisms are. - Know the process of photosynthesis (what happens and where it happens)
Main Characteristics 1. Cells contain a nucleus 2. Make their own food 3. Cells contain a cell wall 4. Multicellular 5. Can not move from place to place
Plant Kingdom NonvascularVascular mosses and liverworts produce seedsNOT produce seeds ferns horsetails club mosses cones (Gymnosperms) flowers (Angiosperms) Pine trees, evergreens can be such as may such as in such as can be MonocotDicot
Types of Plants 1. Nonvascular Plants 2. Vascular Plants Do NOT have conducting tissue (pipes) to transport water and nutrients. These plants are small and use diffusion and osmosis to move materials. Examples: mosses and liverworts Contain conducting tissue (pipes) to deliver needed materials throughout the plant. Vascular plants can be any size
Types of Vascular Plants 1. Plants without seeds. 2. Plants with seeds. Help form soil and prevent erosion Examples: ferns, horsetails and club mosses Have a two part life cycle sporophyte - produce spores gametophyte - produce sex cells
Types of Seed Plants 1. Gymnosperms 2. Angiosperms Non-flowering or fruit bearing plants Produce cones instead of flowers and fruits. Examples: Conifers and evergreens Flowering plants Use flowers (attract animals) and fruits (protect seeds) for reproduction. Flowering plants provide food for animals.
Seed Structure Cotyledon - a seed leaf. Provides food for the embryo before it can make its own food.
Types of Angiosperms 1. Monocots 2. Dicots Contains 1 seed leaf (cotyledon) Flower parts in threes Leaves with parallel veins Vascular tissue scattered Fibrous roots Examples: grasses, onions, lillies, palms Contains 2 seed leaves (cotyledons) Flower parts in fours or fives Leaves with branching veins Vascular tissue in a ring Taproots Examples: roses, cactuses, sunflowers, peanuts
Differences between monocots and dicots
- DO NOT WRITE ON THE SHEET I give you! - Write down section headings and bullets for each paragraph. - You will have 8 minutes to read and chapter title. - You will then discuss your answers with the group and make a list of important information for the class.
In groups you will need: A time keeper A recorder All students must participate in A reporteranswering questions!!! A manager A collector You need to determine the important information that the class needs to know and write that information neat and large on the construction paper. Write the question on the top of the page and then bullet key information. You will have 10 minutes.
Monocot Dicot 1 cotyledon ScatteredIn a ring Net-veined Parallel veins Parts in 4s or 5s Parts in 3s taprootfibrous 2 cotyledons
Angiosperm Structure Angiosperms are made up of: Roots Stems Leaves Flowers
Roots Main Functions: Supply plant with water and minerals that are absorbed from the soil Support and anchor plant Store food made during photosynthesis
One main root growing down with smaller roots coming off. Example: carrots Several roots that are the same size. Example: grass 2. Fibrous Root - 1. Tap Root - Root Types
Stems Main Functions: Support plant body Some stems can store materials. Example: cactus stores water Transport materials between roots and leaves Xylem - carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem - carries food downward to roots for storage and to other parts of the plant
Stem Types 1. Herbaceous Soft, flexible plant 2. Woody Rigid stems made of wood and bark
Leaves Main Functions: Capture sunlight to make food Control movement of gases in plant. Parts of the Leaf: Cuticle - waxy covering that protects against water loss Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll to capture sunlight Veins - Move water, food and nutrients through xylem and phloem Stomata - openings under the leaf to let in carbon dioxide and give off water and oxygen. Guard cells - open and close the stomata
Leaf Structure Stomata Guard cell
Flowers Main Functions: Used for sexual reproduction Parts of the Flower Sepal - protects immature flower when it is a bud Petals - attract insects and animals Stamen - male reproductive parts Anther - produces pollen grains Filament - thin stalk, that anther sits on
Pistil - female reproductive parts Stigma - collects pollen Style- pollen travels down to reach egg Ovary - develops into the fruit Ovule - inside the ovary; contains the egg. Develops into a seed after fertilization. Parts of the Flower Continued
Flower Project Extra Credit Using the internet or gardening magazine or book: Choose a flowering plant Draw a picture of the plant Label the parts (roots, stems, leaves and flower) Describe one main function of each part. Name of the plant Your name & class period
Pollination & Fertilization 1. What type of reproduction occurs in flowering plants? Sexual reproduction - egg and sperm are needed - offspring look different than parents
2. What is pollination? 3. What has to happen in order for fertilization to occur? Pollination occurs when pollen grains are transported from anthers to stigmas. - Self-pollination: egg and sperm from the same plant - Cross-pollination: egg and sperm from different plants - The sperm inside the pollen must get from stigma to ovary. - A pollen tube forms from stigma to ovary.
pistil 1.Pull off the petals gently. Count the number of petals. 2.Remove the stamens. Draw and label the parts. Be careful not to remove the stigma and style. 3.Draw and label the female parts. Remove the stigma and style. 4.With your fingernail open up the ovary and draw what you see inside. Flower Dissection Lab Directions
Flower Dissection Lab Questions 1.Classify the flowering plant we dissected today using one or more of the words below: gymnosperm, nonvascular, angiosperm, seedless, vascular, seeded 2.Determine whether the plant is a monocot or dicot. Give at least two reasons for your answer. 3.Explain the function of each flower parts below: a) sepal b) anther c) petal d) ovary e) stigma f) ovule g) stamen h) style i) pistil j) filament 4.Describe how pollination occurs. 5.Explain the path pollen takes from the top of the female part of the flower to the egg. 6.Describe how fertilization occurs in plants.
4. What is fertilization? 5. What takes place after fertilization? - Fertilization occurs when the sperm from the pollen grain fuses (joins) with the egg inside the ovule. - The ovule develops into a seed. - The ovary develops into a fruit.
6. What are dormant seeds? 7. What does a seed need to grow? 8. What is germination? - They are seeds that are inactive (not growing or developing). 1. water 2. oxygen 3. proper temperature - Germination is the sprouting of a seed.
Asexual Reproduction in Plants Vegetative propagation: A root or stem can become a new plant Examples: - cuttings: using part of stem or root - runners: stems that run along the ground and buds grow off it. - plantlets: tiny plants grow on leaves cutting runner plantlet
Tropisms: Growth in response to a stimulus Examples: phototropism: response to light gravitropism (geotropism): response to gravity hydrotropism: response to water thigmotropism: response to touch
Photosynthesis 1. What is needed for photosynthesis? 2. What does chlorophyll do? - sunlight: chloroplasts in leaves - carbon dioxide: stomata in leaves - water: absorbed by roots - chlorophyll absorbs sunlight in the leaves The process by which plants make food using sunlight.
3. What is the equation for photosynthesis? sunlight + carbon dioxide + water ---> sugar + oxygen Sunlight + 6 CO H 2 O ----> C 6 H 12 O O 2 Excess sugar travels down phloem to be stored in the roots. Oxygen leaves the plant through the stomata of the leaves.
A B G F E D C Bonus: 1. A and B from above make up the _________. 2. D,E, F from above make up the _________.
Cellular Respiration: Converts the energy stored in food into a form of energy the plant can use. Transpiration: Water loss from leaves through stomata. C 6 H 12 O O > 6 CO H 2 O + energy glucose + oxygen ----->carbon dioxide + water + energy This process occurs in the mitochondria of both plant and animal cells.